Table 1 —

Characteristics of Nurses’ Health Study participants according to diabetes status

CharacteristicType 2 diabetes
P
NoYes
n2,29282
Age at interview (years)74.2 (2.7)74.3 (1.8)>0.5
Mental health index*81.2 (12.8)77.9 (13.6)<0.0005
Energy fatigue index*64.7 (18.3)55.9 (18.4)<0.0005
Education after high school (years)4.0 (1.5)3.5 (0.9)0.0005
Age at menopause (years)48.4 (5.9)46.5 (6.4)<0.0005
Current use of postmenopausal hormone34.225.70.1
Use of antidepressants4.88.5>0.1
Cigarette smoking8.88.5>0.5
BMI ≥30 kg/m214.339.5<0.0001
High blood pressure45.364.6<0.001
Use of aspirin use ≥4 times per week24.827.6>0.5
Use of vitamin E supplementation of ≥350 IU16.312.20.1
  • Data are n, means (SD), or %.

  • *

    * Mental health and energy-fatigue indices are taken from Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 and are scored from 0 to 100 points.