Table 2 —

Mean differences in scores on six measures of cognitive function according to diabetes status, Nurses’ Health Study

Type 2 diabetes*
NoYes
TICS (n = 2,374)
 Mean score (SD)33.8 (2.6)33.1 (3.2)
 Age-adjusted difference in score0−0.73
 Multivariate-adjusted difference in score (95% CI)0−0.60 (−1.18 to −0.03)
P0.04
TICS 10-word list (n = 2,374)
 Mean score (SD)4.6 (1.6)4.3 (1.9)
 Age-adjusted difference in score0−0.33
 Multivariate-adjusted difference in score (95% CI)0−0.28 (−0.64 to 0.08)
P0.12
Test of verbal fluency (n = 1,625)
 Mean score (SD)16.8 (4.5)15.8 (4.3)
 Age-adjusted difference in score0−1.00
 Multivariate-adjusted difference in score (95% CI)0−0.70 (−1.82 to 0.43)
P0.22
East Boston Memory Test—immediate recall (n = 1,625)
 Mean score (SD)9.7 (1.8)9.4 (1.8)
 Age-adjusted difference in score0−0.33
 Multivariate-adjusted difference in score (95% CI)0−0.30 (−0.75 to 0.15)
P0.19
East Boston Memory Test—delayed recall (n = 1,625)
 Mean score (SD)9.4 (2.2)8.8 (2.4)
 Age-adjusted difference in score0−0.39
 Multivariate-adjusted difference in score (95% CI)0−0.52 (−1.07 to 0.04)
P0.07
Global score (n = 1,625)
 Mean score (SD)0.10 (2.7)−0.81 (3.3)
 Age-adjusted difference in score0−0.92
 Multivariate-adjusted difference in score (95% CI)0−0.73 (−1.42 to −0.04)
P0.04
  • Data are means (SD) or adjusted means difference (95% CI).

  • *

    * All analyses combine confirmed and probable diabetes because results were similar for both;

  • Covariates include age at interview, education, vitality index of the Medical Outcomes Short Form-36, high blood pressure, BMI, use of vitamin E, and use of antidepressants, and use of postmenopausal hormones.

  • Global score combines TICS, test of verbal fluency, and East Boston Memory Test—immediate and delayed recalls.