Table 3 —

Risk of a low score on six cognitive measures according to diabetes status, Nurses’ Health Study

Type 2 diabetes*
NoYes
TICS
 Low Scorers (<31 points)20814
 Age-adjusted relative risk1.02.09
 Multivariate relative risk (95% CI)1.01.98 (1.06–3.69)
TICS 10-word list
 Low scorers (<3 words)54930
 Age-adjusted relative risk1.01.87
 Multivariate relative risk (95% CI)1.01.71 (1.07–2.73)
Test of verbal fluency
 Low scorers (<12 animals)17212
 Age-adjusted relative risk1.01.86
 Multivariate relative risk (95% CI)1.01.61 (0.82–3.16)
East Boston Memory Test—immediate recall
 Low scorers (<8 points)1717
 Age-adjusted relative risk1.01.02
 Multivariate relative risk (95% CI)1.00.96 (0.42–2.17)
East Boston Memory Test—delayed recall
 Low scorers (<8 points)22713
 Age-adjusted relative risk1.01.53
 Multivariate relative risk (95% CI)1.01.51 (0.79–2.87)
Global score
 Low scorers15013
 Age-adjusted relative risk1.02.44
 Multivariate relative risk (95% CI)1.02.16 (1.10–4.21)
  • Data are n or relative risk (95% CI).

  • *

    * For the TICS, the total number of subjects tested was 2,374. For the remaining measures, the total number of subjects tested was 1,625. Low scorers are defined as the bottom 10% and are compared with those scoring in the top 90%, except for TICS, which has an established cutpoint. All analyses combine confirmed and probable diabetes because results were similar for both.

  • Covariates include age at interview, education, vitality index of the Medical Outcomes Short Form-36, high blood pressure, BMI, use of vitamin E, use of antidepressants, and use of postmenopausal hormones.

  • Global score combines results of TICS, test of verbal fluency, and East Boston Memory Test—immediate and delayed recalls.