Table 1 —

Prevalence of clinically significant depression in adults with diabetes: controlled studies (n = 20)

StudySubjects (Diabetic: n) (Control: n)Sex (% female)Age (years)Race (% white)Depression assessment methodPrevalence of depression
Depression scale scores
Overall (%)Males (%)Females (%)
Kokkonen (62)T1: 63e41.320.9 ± 1.9 PSE ID ≥514.3Men: 9.3 ± 9.4* Women: 14.2 ± 10.2
Medically well: 123a51.221.9 ± 1.4 11.4
Songar et al. (25)T1: 60e68.329.7BDI ≥1443.315.2 
Medically well: 30c60.029.23.3* 4.1*
Popkin et al. (63)T1: 75e64.031  DIS/DSM-III10.73.714.6
1st degree relatives: 34f55.936  2.90.05.3
Amato et al. (64)T2: 197a68.073.9 ± 5.9 GDS ≥2113.611.414.713.2 ± 6.8
1142a55.974.2 ± 6.4 8.76.6*10.6§11.1 ± 6.5*
Eaton et al. (50)T2: 148aDIS/DSM6.1
1600a5.3
Viinamäki et al. (65)T2: 82a46.366.9 ± 0.7 Zung ≥5011.011.410.539.4 ± 1.3
115a55.765.6 ± 0.5 6.936.9 ± 0.8
Leedom et al. (26)T2: 71e70.4  50 ± 2.0 18.3BDI ≥1049.312.2 
46e67.4  46 ± 1.7 23.921.7§5.9 ± 0.7
Palinkas et al. (28)T2: 93a39.872.4 ± 8.7 BDI ≥1311.58.813.6 6.5
1284a54.568.5 ± 9.5 4.62.66.25.4§
Wing et al. (29)T2: 32e50.052.1 ± 7.7 BDI ≥1621.810.6 ± 6.4
Spouses: 32e50.050.8 ± 8.8 12.57.5 ± 6.2
Weyerer et al. (66)T2: 55a72.7CIS/ICD 827.3
Medically well: 122a54.110.6§
Tun et al. (32)#T2: 119e48.763.4Zung##39.3 
Nondiabetic out-patients: 25e56.063.034.0§
Black (67)T1 & 2: 636a58.20.0CES-D ≥1631.122.637.9
2196a58.40.024.1*15.9§30.2§
Penninx et al. (33)#T1 & 2: 204a52.973.3 ± 7.7 CES-D##10.1 ± 9.2
Medically well: 719a42.467.2 ± 8.6  5.4 ± 6.3*
Bourdel-Marchasson et al. (68)T1 & 2: 237a50.6CES-D Men: ≥17 Women: ≥2321.3Men: 9.3 ± 9.4* Women: 14.2 ± 10.2
2555a60.712.7*††Men: 7.2 ± 7.6§§ Women: 11.8 ± 9.6
Rajala et al. (69)T1 & 2: 62a40.355  Zung ≥4519.318.920.0
480a58.555  11.710.112.8
Zhang et al. (70)T1 & 2: 209a58.40.0DIS/DSM-III + CES-D3.81.85.1 8.3
1289a55.60.03.61.75.1 7.8
Wells et al. (71)T1 & 2: 154a‖‖DIS/DSM-III9.6
Medically well: 1353a‖‖48.54.4
Robinson et al. (72)T1 & 2: 60:70e45.4  51 ± 6.6 56.9PSE/Bedford Col. criteria8.5
130f45.4  44 ± 10.472.38.5
Friis et al. (73)T1 & 2: 56b71.457.060.7CES-D ≥1660.720.4
Medically ill: 56b73.253.063.248.214.2
Murrell et al. (74)T1 & 2: 175a65.792.9¶¶CES-D ≥2021.715.525.4
2277a61.516.013.417.6
  • Data are means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. T1 = type 1 diabetes, T2 = type 2 diabetes, n = sample size, PSE = Present State Examination, DIS/DSM-III = Diagnostic Interview Schedule/Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-III, GDS = Geriatric Depression Scale, Zung = Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, CIS = Clinical Interview Schedule, CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale.

  • Sample randomly selected from a acommunity, bclinic or hospital, or cunspecified setting.

  • Sample not randomly selected from a dcommunity, eclinic or hospital, or funspecified setting.

  • *

    * P ≤ .001 vs. the prevalence of the overall or sex-specific diabetic group;

  • nonsignificant vs. the prevalence of the overall or sex-specific diabetic group;

  • P ≤ .05 vs. the prevalence of the overall or sex-specific diabetic group;

  • §

    § P ≤ .01 vs. the prevalence of the overall or sex-specific diabetic group;

  • age- and sex-adjusted;

  • age-adjusted;

  • #

    # these studies reported only mean depression scale scores for diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, and thus were not included in the prevalence calculations;

  • ††

    †† sex-adjusted;

  • §§

    §§ greater (P < .001) in nondiabetic females vs. male counterparts;

  • ‖‖

    ‖‖ prevalences are any affective disorder including major depression, dysthmia, and mania. Mania represented just 2% of all affective disorders in this study.

  • ¶¶

    ¶¶ the number is the percentage of Caucasian subjects in the entire sample.