Table 2 —

Prevalence of clinically significant depression in adults with diabetes: uncontrolled studies (n = 22)

StudySubjects (Diabetic: n) (Control: n)Sex (% female)Age (years)Race (% white)Depression assessment methodPrevalence of depression
Depression scale scores
Overall (%)Males (%)Females (%)
Berlin et al. (75)T1: 102e45.143 ± 13MINI/DSM-IV12.7 
Cohen et al. (76)T1: 49e55.134.3 ± 9.2SCID/DSM-III-R14.3*
Mayou et al. (77)T1: 109e53.221.9 ± 2.8PSE ID ≥511.07.813.8
Winocour et al. (78)T1: 130e36.240.3 ± 1.1100.0Zung Men: >25.7 Women: >29.814.612.019.113.4 ± 0.6
Stone et al. (27)T1: 57e56.143.5 ± 15.7BDI ≥1033.38.5 ± 6.1
Surridge et al. (79)T1: 50e46.038.1 ± 14.5BDI + Hamilton + psychiatric interview0005.9 ± 6.3
Marcus et al. (34)§T2: 66e66.652.9 ± 9.5IDD-L
Connell et al. (80)T2: 191d57.670.3 ± 6.786.0Zung47.049.7 ± 8.6
Naliboff and Rosenthall (81)T2: 102e0.066.6BDI ≥ 17 + MMPI ≥8023.523.5
Geringer et al. (82)T2: 64e100.063 ± 5.3Zung ≥5018.818.841.5
Biglan et al. (83)T2: 36eSADS/RDC22.2
Kohen et al. (84)T1: 36e T2: 64e42.0T1: 37.7 ± 13.3 T2: 62.5 ± 12.7HADST1: 16.7 T2: 35.9 x: 29.0T1: 4.6 ± 4.3 T2: 6.3 ± 4.3 x: 5.7
Peyrot et al. (85)T1: 203e T2: 431e59.060.3CES-D ≥16T1: 42.4 T2: 40.8 x:41.331.148.4
Bailey (86)T1 & 2: 180e60.046  71.1CES-D ≥1633.913.5 ± 1.1
Haire-Joshu et al. (87)T1: 163e T2: 23e54.842.7 ± 14.772.6BDI ≥1027.47.8
Jalenques et al. (88)T1: 34e T2: 27e41.0T1: 49.8 T2: 59.0 x: 53.9Psychiatric interview/ DSM-III-R criteriaT1: 20.6 T2: 22.2 x: 21.313.932.0
Padgett et al. (89)T1: 33b T2: 147b51.1Zung ≥5060.552.5
Lee et al. (90)T1 & 2: 93e58.127 ± 6.7DSM-III symptom checklist5.4#
Von Dras and Lichty (91)T1: 66a T2: 50a52.6T1: 33.7 ± 10.9 T2: 55.4 ± 9.0 x: 43.1 ± 14.8Zung40.048.4 ± 11.4
Lustman et al. (92)T1: 57b T2: 57b66.7T1: 30.8 ± 9.7 T2: 49.1 ± 13.0 x: 40.0 ± 15.162.3DIS/DSM-III14.0
Slawson et al. (93)T1 & 2: 25e20.046.6MMPI-D ≥7036.035.040.063.0
Samson et al. (94)T1: 111e T2: 129e50.852.1 ± 15.7SCID/DSM-III-RT1: 16.2 T2: 10.9 x: 13.3**11.9**13.9**
  • Data are means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. T1 = type 1 diabetes, T2 = type 2 diabetes, MINI/DSM-IV = Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview/Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV, SCID = Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, PSE = Present State Examination, Zung = Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, MMPI-D = Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Depression Scale, IDD-L = Inventory to Diagnose Depression-Lifetime, SADS = Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia.

  • Sample randomly selected from a acommunity, bclinic or hospital, or cunspecified setting.

  • Sample not randomly selected from a dcommunity, eclinic or hospital, or funspecified setting.

  • *

    * Includes diagnoses of dysthymia, major depression, and depression NOS;

  • sex adjusted in the threshold scores for clinically significant depression;

  • cutoff score for the symptom scale not specified;

  • §

    § reported only the lifetime prevalence of depression for diabetic subjects, and was not included in the point prevalence calculations;

  • depression scale of the Faschingbauer abbreviated version;

  • diagnosis of depressive neurosis + depression NOS;

  • #

    # dysthymia;

  • **

    ** diagnoses of major depression, depression NOS, and dysthymia.