Table 3 —

Variation of peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and vascular indexes during placebo or l-arginine therapy in both groups of patients compared with normal subjects

Group 1
Group 2
Normal subjects
Placebo 1st monthPlacebo 2nd monthDifference*Placebo 1st monthl-Arginine 2nd monthDifference*
Basic
 Plasma glucose (mmol/l)7.3 ± 0.17.3 ± 0.2–0.03 ± 0.157.0 ± 0.36.4 ± 0.4–0.52 ± 0.245.0 ± 0.2
 Endogenous glucose production (μmol ·kg–1 · min–1)17.8 ± 1.317.8 ± 1.4+0.2 ± 0.618.0 ± 1.316.4 ± 0.9–1.7 ± 0.811.3 ± 1.3
 cGMP (nmol/l)2.43 ± 0.272.44 ± 0.25+0.01 ± 0.072.76 ± 0.354.43 ± 0.54+1.67 ± 0.52§4.93 ± 0.33
 Forearm blood flow (ml · 100 ml forearm–1 · min–1)2.03 ± 0.262.11 ± 0.23+0.09 ± 0.072.19 ± 0.263.01 ± 0.22+0.82 ± 0.182.87 ± 0.24
 Peripheral vascular resistance (UI)46.0 ± 4.943.3 ± 5.2–2.7 ± 3.643.0 ± 3.927.6 ± 1.9–15.3 ± 3.031.4 ± 2.8
Euglycemic clamp
 Steady-state plasma glucose5.7 ± 0.25.7 ± 0.3+0.08 ± 0.045.4 ± 0.15.2 ± 0.2–0.30 ± 0.125.0 ± 0.1
 Endogenous glucose production (μmol · kg–1 · min–1)6.22 ± 1.166.77 ± 0.61+0.50 ± 1.936.11 ± 0.334.29 ± 0.39–2.09 ± 0.614.96 ± 0.18
M value (μmol · kg–1 · min–1)11.3 ± 2.011.7 ± 1.6+0.39 ± 1.1011.3 ± 1.115.1 ± 1.3+3.96 ± 0.7724.2 ± 0.7
 Forearm blood flow (ml · 100 ml forearm–1 · min–1)2.46 ± 0.262.36 ± 0.24–0.10 ± 0.352.80 ± 0.283.32 ± 0.24+0.52 ± 0.113.10 ± 0.29
Peripheral vascular resistance (UI)37.1 ± 3.437.7 ± 3.8+1.19 ± 5.2832.4 ± 3.529.6 ± 5.3–2.68 ± 3.8928.3 ± 2.5
  • Data are means ± SEM.

  • *

    * Negative differences correspond with a decrease, whereas positive differences correspond with an increase of variables after therapy;

  • P < 0.01 vs. groups 1 and 2;

  • P < 0.05 vs. placebo 1 month;

  • §

    § P < 0.001 vs. group 1;

  • P < 0.05 vs. group 1.