Table 1 —

Risk factors, spectral power, and other characteristics by diabetes and sex

Men
Women
NondiabeticDiabeticNondiabeticDiabetic
n74828978
Mean (SEM)
 Age (yr)37.7 (0.5)38.4 (0.5)37.8 (0.4)37.3 (0.5)
 Diabetes duration (yr)23.8 (0.9)23.9 (0.8)
 HbA1c% (g)5.3 (0.05)8.3 (0.14)5.3 (0.04)8.9 (0.20)
 BMI (kg/m2)25.2 (0.4)25.6 (0.3)25.5 (0.6)25.6 (0.4)
 Waist-to-hip ratio0.92 (0.01)0.91 (0.01)0.81 (0.01)0.82 (0.01)
 HDL (mmol/l)1.57 (0.05)1.70 (0.04)1.83 (0.04)1.94 (0.06)*
 LDL (mmol/l)3.3 (0.11)3.0 (0.1)*2.96 (0.08)2.84 (0.1)
 Total cholesterol/HDL ratio3.8 (0.14)3.2 (0.11)3.1 (0.1)2.9 (0.1)
 Triglyceride [mmol/l (g)]1.4 (0.09)1.2 (0.06)*1.0 (0.05)0.92 (0.04)
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)124 (1.5)128 (1.3)*112 (1.3)120 (1.6)
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76 (1.1)76 (0.9)69 (0.9)72 (1.0)*
% (SEM)
 Obese8 (3)7 (3)21 (4)10 (3)
 AER ≥ 20 μg/min4 (2)22 (5)3 (2)8 (3)
 Ever smoked59 (6)51 (6)53 (5)45 (6)
 Exercise score <1075 (5)78 (4)86 (4)85 (4)
Median (interquartile range)
 High-frequency power (ms2)253 (495)149 (276)389 (484)127 (190)
 Low-frequency power (ms2)505 (583)297 (573)457 (589)171 (323)
 Very-low-frequency power (ms2)420 (507)266 (422)412 (609)162 (268)
 Total power (ms2)1,349 (955)697 (883)1,365 (1,056)491 (567)
 Heart rate (beats/min)64 (11)67 (18)64 (13)72 (13)
 High frequency/low frequency ratio0.53 (0.7)0.45 (0.5)0.94 (0.8)0.71 (0.98)
  • Data are means (SE).

  • *

    * P < 0.05,

  • P < 0.01,

  • P < 0.001 for the difference between subjects of the same sex with and without diabetes adjusted for age using regression analysis. Interquartile range defines the magnitude of the difference between the 25th and 75th centiles.