Table 1 —

Characteristics of subjects studied for insulin requirement

Subjects with insulin dataSubjects with defined levels of glycemic control (subgroups 1, 2, or 3)
n28193
Age (years)27.9 ± 4.028.1 ± 4.0
Duration of diabetes (years)12.1 ± 6.611.6 ± 7.3
Insulin (years)12.0 ± 7.011.9 ± 8.2
Age at diagnosis (years)15.8 ± 7.116.5 ± 7.7
Race
 White269 (95.7)87 (93.5)
 Nonwhite12 (4.3)6 (6.5)
Age (years)
 15–194 (1.4)0
 20–2453 (18.9)21 (22.6)
 25–29121 (43.1)36 (38.7)
 30–3491 (32.4)31 (33.3)
 35–3912 (4.3)5 (5.4)
Income (dollars)
 <10,00013 (4.9)2 (2.3)
 10,000–19,99948 (18.0)19 (21.8)
 20,000–24,99941 (15.4)15 (17.2)
 25,000–34,99964 (24.0)14 (16.1)
 >35,000101 (37.8)37 (42.5)
Education
 High school graduate or less52 (18.5)19 (20.4)
 Some college89 (31.7)28 (30.1)
 College graduate80 (28.5)28 (30.1)
 Some graduate school23 (8.2)10 (10.8)
 Graduate degree37 (13.2)8 (8.6)
Cigarette smoking
 None239 (85.1)76 (81.7)
 <1 pack/day28 (10.0)11 (11.8)
 ≥1 pack/day13 (4.6)6 (6.5)
 Unknown1 (0.4)
Alcohol consumption
 None90 (32.0)29 (31.2)
 <1 drink/day179 (63.7)60 (64.5)
 1–2 drinks/day10 (3.6)3 (3.2)
 >2 drinks/day2 (0.7)1 (1.1)
History of retinopathy
 Yes70 (24.9)20 (21.5)
 No209 (74.4)72 (77.4)
 Unknown2 (0.7)1 (1.1)
History of proteinuria
 Yes28 (10.0)10 (10.8)
  • Data are n, means ± SD, or n (%).