Table 2

The association of job strain with incident type 2 diabetes in relation to study follow-up periods, outcome ascertainment, and adjustments

AnalysisNumber of diabetes casesNumber of participantsNumber of studiesHR (95% CI)
Follow-up period
 Full follow-up3,703124,808131.15 (1.06–1.25)
 Cases with diabetes diagnosed during first 3 years excluded3,241124,346131.15 (1.05–1.27)
Method of diabetes ascertainment
 Oral glucose tolerance test5587,08211.09 (0.86–1.37)
 Hospitalization and mortality registries37935,28281.35 (1.05–1.74)
 Hospitalization, mortality, and drug reimbursement registries2,03471,56231.15 (1.03–1.29)
 Self-report and mortality register73210,88211.08 (0.88–1.33)
Adjustments
 Age, sex3,703124,808131.26 (1.16–1.37)
 Age, sex, SES3,703124,808131.15 (1.06–1.25)
 Age, sex, SES, BMI category2,833111,984111.12 (1.02–1.24)
 Age, sex, SES, physical activity3,523120,364121.13 (1.03–1.23)
 Age, sex, SES, smoking3,591120,495131.14 (1.04–1.24)
 Age, sex, SES, alcohol consumption3,539110,447111.14 (1.04–1.25)
 Age, sex, SES, lifestyle variables*2,59995,921101.11 (1.00–1.23)
 Age, sex, SES, lifestyle variables*, biomarkers1,88988,17481.12 (0.99–1.26)
 Age, sex, SES, lifestyle variables*, biomarkers63816,16831.08 (0.87–1.35)
  • *Lifestyle variables: BMI (six categories), physical activity (three categories), smoking (three categories), and alcohol consumption (four categories).

  • †Self-reported hypertension or use of antihypertensive medication (FPS, HeSSup, SLOSH, IPAW, and COPSOQ-II), self-reported elevated lipids (HeSSup), or measured systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol (Whitehall II, WOLF N, and WOLF S).

  • ‡Systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol (Whitehall II, WOLF N, and WOLF S).