Table 1 —

Prevalence of antibodies against GLIMA in recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients and prediabetic siblings at first sampling

CharacteristicsPrevalence of GLIMA antibodies
Type 1 diabetic patientsPrediabetic siblings (first sample)
All subjects38/100 (38)6/23 (26)
 Male18/56 (32)3/12 (25)
 Female20/44 (46)3/11 (27)
Age (years)
 0–1420/39 (51)3/15 (20)
 15–3918/61 (30)*3/8 (38)
ICA (JDF U)
 ≥ 1237/66 (56)6/16 (38)
 < 121/34 (3)0/7 (0)
GADA (%)
 ≥2.630/80 (38)5/17 (29)
 <2.68/20 (40)1/6 (17)
IA-2A (%)
 ≥0.436/60 (60)6/14 (43)
 <0.42/40 (5)0/9 (0)§
IAA (%)
 ≥0.616/38 (42)3/12 (25)
 <0.622/62 (36)3/11 (27)
IAA and/or ICA and/or GADA and/or IA-2A38/92 (41)6/22 (27)
No IAA, no ICA, no GADA, no IA-2A0/8 (0)0/1 (0)
HLA-DQAI*-DQBI*
 0301-030228/60 (47)5/19 (26)
 Non(0301-0302)10/40 (25)1/4 (25)
 0501-020118/53 (34)3/15 (20)
 Non(0501-0201)20/47 (43)3/8 (38)
5′ INS
 I/I26/65 (40)not done
 Non (I/I)11/32 (34)
  • Data are n (%). Fisher’s exact test:

  • *

    * P = 0.04 vs. age 0–14 years,

  • P < 0.001 vs. ICA ≥12 JDF U;

  • P < 0.001, and

  • §

    § P < 0.05 vs. IA-2A ≥0.4%;

  • P < 0.04 vs. 0301-0302. Threshold for significance: P < 0.05/19 or P < 0.003 (Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons).