Table 2 —

Relative risks (95% CI) of hip fracture by diabetes status, the Iowa Women’s Health Study, 1986–1997

Diabetes statusNumber of fracturesAge-adjusted RR (95% CI)Multivariate-adjusted RR (95% CI)
No diabetes*4521.001.00
Type 1 diabetes514.1 (5.85, 34.2)12.25 (5.05, 29.7)
Type 2 diabetes381.75 (1.25, 2.43)1.70 (1.21, 2.38)
Duration of diabetes*
 No diabetes4521.001.00
 Type 2 diabetes
  0–4 years111.47 (0.81, 2.67)1.44 (0.79, 2.63)
  5–12 years111.46 (0.80, 2.66)1.40 (0.77, 2.57)
  13–40 years162.38 (1.44, 3.92)2.30 (1.39, 3.81)
Type of diabetes treatment*
 No diabetes4521.001.00
 Type 2 diabetes
  Insulin treatment132.79 (1.61, 4.85)2.66 (1.52, 4.64)
  Oral agents131.82 (1.05, 3.16)1.80 (1.03, 3.16)
  No pharmacologic treatment121.21 (0.68, 2.14)1.17 (0.66, 2.09)
Never used estrogen
 Nondiabetic2961.001.00
 Type 2 diabetic261.74 (1.17, 2.60)1.66 (1.10, 2.51)
Current estrogen use
 Nondiabetic311.001.00
 Type 2 diabetic10.98 (0.13, 7.16)1.17 (0.16, 8.77)
Former estrogen use
 Nondiabetic1251.001.00
 Type 2 diabetic111.79 (0.97, 3.32)1.84 (0.98, 3.46)
Obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2)
 Nondiabetic821.001.00
 Type 2 diabetic151.74 (1.00, 3.02)1.66 (0.95, 2.90)
Nonobese women (BMI <30 kg/m2)
 Nondiabetic3701.001.00
 Type 2 diabetic231.87 (1.23, 2.85)1.74 (1.14, 2.67)
  • *

    * Adjusted for age, smoking (former, current, never), estrogen use (former, current, never), BMI, and waist-to-hip ratio;

  • adjusted for age, smoking (former, current, never), BMI, and waist-to-hip ratio;

  • adjusted for age, smoking (former, current, never), estrogen use (former, current, never), and waist-to-hip ratio.