Table 1—

Characteristics of Onset Study patients according to medical history of diabetes

DiabetesYesNoP value*
n3991,536
Age (years)65 ± 1161 ± 13<0.001
Female164 (41)437 (28)<0.001
White race342 (87)1,394 (92)0.002
BMI (kg/m2)§27.6 ± 5.727.1 ± 4.70.05
Current smoker81 (21)556 (37)<0.001
Former smoker174 (44)626 (41)0.31
Previous myocardial infection153 (39)393 (26)<0.001
Angina128 (32)363 (24)<0.001
Hypertension248 (62)607 (40)<0.001
Regular use:
 Aspirin135 (34)516 (34)0.95
 Ca blockers#152 (38)324 (21)<0.001
 β-blockers89 (22)303 (20)0.26
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme  inhibitors77 (19)152 (10)<0.001
Thrombolytic therapy111 (28)580 (38)<0.001
Congestive heart failure**88 (22)195 (13)<0.001
Ventricular tachycardia††35 (9)203 (13)0.02
Q-wave infarction‡‡111 (52)483 (57)0.17
Regular exertion§§46 (12)311 (20)<0.001
Alcohol abstention‖‖358 (90)1,083 (71)<0.001
Education¶¶0.05
 Less than high school105 (27)351 (24)
 Completed high school172 (44)603 (41)
 Some college115 (29)531 (36)
Income ($)##36,905 ± 12,43238,686 ± 13,2680.02
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD.

  • *

    * P values for binary and continuous variables derive from exact tests and analysis of variance, respectively;

  • race was missing for 22 patients;

  • §

    § the BMI was missing for 22 patients;

  • smoking status was missing for 20 patients;

  • previous myocardial infarction was missing for 14 patients;

  • #

    # Ca blockers indicates calcium channel blockers;

  • **

    ** congestive heart failure during the index hospitalization;

  • ††

    †† ventricular tachycardia during the index hospitalization;

  • ‡‡

    ‡‡ electrocardiographic interpretations were available for 1,045 patients;

  • §§

    §§ regular exertion was defined as exertion ≥6 metabolic equivalents at least once per week;

  • ‖‖

    ‖‖ alcohol use was missing for five patients;

  • ¶¶

    ¶¶ educational attainment was missing for 58 patients;

  • ##

    ## household income was derived from zip codes according to 1990 U.S. Census Bureau data and was missing for 56 patients.