Table 2—

Distribution of descriptive characteristics and demographics of dichotomous variables among the four groups of the consensus classification

Group 0 (no neuropathy)OR (groups 1–3)Group 1 (neuropathy)OR (groups 1–3)Group 2 (neuropathy, vascular disease and/or deformityOR (groups 2–3)Group 3 (previous ulcer)TotalP
Female70.97.0 (3.3–14.7)85.717.2 (4.5–66.7)47.12.6 (1.2–5.6)25.853.5<0.001
Type 2 diabetes94.2NS1001.1 (1.0–1.1)94.1NS93.493.8NS
Previous or present drinker45.62.3 (1.1–4.5)47.6NS60.8NS65.655.20.011
Present or previous tobacco use55.7NS57.1NS52.9NS60.756.6NS
Nephropathy25.33.1 (1.5–6.4)33.3NS27.52.8 (1.3–6.2)51.634.30.004
Retinopathy33.88.9 (3.7–21.5)50.04.6 (1.4–14.7)44.45.7 (2.2–14.4)82.051.4<0.001
HbA1c >9%42.72.5 (1.2–5.0)57.9NS40.92.7 (1.2–6.0)65.050.50.033
Amputation history02.8 (2.2–3.6)01.4 (1.2–1.7)02.2 (1.8–2.7)30.68.9<0.001
Elevated plantar peak pressures33.34.4 (2.0–9.6)47.1NS36.23.9 (1.7–9.1)68.844.40.001
ABI <0.802.7 (2.0–3.6)0NS21.2NS10.38.50.015
Any missing pulse03.0 (2.3–3.9)01.6 (1.3–1.9)52.9NS36.123.1<0.001
Incompressible ankle pressure (>1.2)40.5NS42.1NS34.0NS47.343.0NS
TcPo2 <40 mmHg47.2NS60.0NS62.5NS48.152.6NS
VPT >25 V08.9 (5.0–15.9)42.96.7 (2.2–20.0)27.513.2 (5.3–33.0)83.334.6<0.001
Abnormal SWM test062.5 (9.2–500)89.5NS67.415.0 (1.8–121.1)96.949.0<0.001
Deformity36.73.3 (1.7–6.8)02.0 (1.5–2.7)68.6NS66.149.3<0.001
Hallux limitus5.17.1 (2.4–22.4)9.5NS11.82.8 (1.0–7.8)27.413.6<0.001
Pes equinus17.7NS14.3NS29.4NS29.023.5NS
Limited ROM subtalar joint29.12.4 (1.2–4.9)14.36.0 (1.6–22.5)14.3NS5036.20.006
  • Data are % or OR (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated. For VPT, abnormal SWM test, deformity, and hallux limitus, P < 0.001; for limited ROM subtalar joint, P = 0.006. ROM, range of motion.