Table 2—

Significant group differences on neuropsychological clusters 6 years after onset of diabetes

MeasureType 1 diabetes
Control subjects
Group (P)Group onset age (P)
All<4 years>4 yearsAll<4 years>4 years
n902466842757
Attention<0.05<0.05
 Code correct35.3 (0.6)34.1 (1.3)36.5 (0.6)37.3 (0.6)37.1 (0.6)37.5 (0.7)0.01NS
 Code omissions2.4 (0.5)2.6 (1.0)2.2 (0.5)1.4 (0.5)1.5 (0.9)1.2 (0.6)NSNS
 Digits forward8.2 (0.3)8.9 (0.5)7.5 (0.3)8.5 (0.2)8.9 (0.5)8.1 (0.3)NSNS
 Sky targets18.5 (0.3)18.6 (0.5)18.4 (0.3)18.3 (0.2)18.6 (0.5)18.0 (0.3)NSNS
Processing speed<0.01NS
 CNT total time193.6 (5.9)221.6 (12.1)165.6 (6.1)166.5 (5.6)180.4 (11.3)152.7 (6.8)<0.010.06
 Sky time100.8 (4.1)114.0 (8.9)87.5 (4.6)95.9 (4.1)100.1 (8.4)91.6 (5.1)NSNS
 Symbol search10.4 (0.4)10.2 (0.9)10.7 (0.5)11.9 (0.4)12.7 (0.8)11.1 (0.5)0.010.06
Immediate memoryNSNS
 RAVLT15.4 (0.2)5.0 (0.4)5.9 (0.2)5.9 (0.2)5.8 (0.4)6.0 (0.3)0.06NS
 Story recall25.7 (1.2)22.4 (2.4)29.0 (1.2)26.5 (1.1)25.0 (2.2)28.0 (1.3)NSNS
 Visual learning 15.8 (0.3)6.0 (0.6)5.5 (0.3)5.3 (0.3)5.5 (0.6)5.0 (0.3)NSNS
 Design memory30.9 (1.1)30.1 (2.2)31.6 (1.2)31.2 (2.2)31.0 (2.0)31.3 (1.2)NSNS
New learningNSNS
 RAVLT—5 trials49.1 (1.1)47.3 (2.1)50.9 (1.1)50.6 (1.0)48.6 (2.0)52.5 (1.2)NSNS
 Visual learning29.9 (1.2)31.1 (2.5)28.9 (1.3)28.1 (1.2)28.9 (2.3)27.4 (1.4)NSNS
Long-term memory<0.01NS
 RAVLT—spontaneous11.4 (0.4)11.7 (0.7)11.1 (0.4)11.4 (0.3)11.6 (0.7)11.2 (0.4)NSNS
 RAVLT—cued13.0 (0.2)12.3 (0.4)13.7 (0.2)13.6 (0.2)13.2 (0.4)13.9 (0.2)<0.05NS
 Visual learning8.9 (0.4)9.3 (0.8)8.6 (0.4)8.3 (0.4)8.1 (0.8)8.5 (0.5)NSNS
 Rey figure recall17.4 (0.8)16.8 (1.7)18.0 (0.9)20.1 (0.8)21.0 (1.6)19.2 (0.9)0.01NS
 Story recall23.3 (1.3)19.2 (2.6)27.4 (1.3)23.9 (1.2)21.9 (2.4)25.8 (1.4)NSNS
Executive skills<0.01<0.05
 Rey figure copy27.6 (0.7)26.8 (1.3)28.4 (0.7)30.7 (0.7)31.7 (1.4)29.7 (0.8)<0.010.05
 COWAT total words25.9 (1.0)26.8 (2.1)24.9 (1.0)26.5 (1.8)26.2 (2.1)26.8 (1.2)NSNS
 Making inferences8.7 (0.2)8.0 (0.5)9.5 (0.2)9.4 (0.2)9.3 (0.5)9.5 (0.3)<0.05<0.05
 TOL completed trials11.3 (0.1)11.4 (0.2)11.3 (0.1)11.7 (0.1)11.8 (0.2)11.7 (0.1)<0.01NS
Self-monitoring<0.01NS
 COWAT errors1.6 (0.2)1.5 (0.4)1.8 (0.2)1.1 (0.2)0.6 (0.4)1.6 (0.3)<0.05NS
 Code no-targets2.4 (0.6)3.4 (1.2)1.4 (0.7)0.4 (0.6)0.1 (1.2)0.8 (0.7)<0.010.08
 CNT12 err&sc1.3 (0.2)1.2 (0.4)1.4 (0.2)1.4 (0.2)1.4 (0.3)1.3 (0.2)NSNS
 CNT34 err&sc11.8 (1.1)14.7 (2.3)8.9 (1.2)7.6 (1.1)8.0 (2.1)7.1 (1.3)<0.01NS
 RAVLT intrusions1.5 (0.2)2.1 (0.4)0.9 (0.2)1.0 (0.2)1.4 (0.4)0.5 (0.3)0.08NS
  • Data are least-square adjusted means (SE). CNT, Contingency Naming Test. TOL, Tower of London.