Table A2—

Predictor variables examined in stepwise regression analyses in derivation data set

VariableUnit of analysis
Membership database
 Patient age1 year
 Patient sexMale/Female
Inpatient events (1994–1995)*
 Macro- and microvascular complicationsYes/No
 Infectious complicationsYes/No
 Metabolic complicationsYes/No
Related outpatient diagnoses (1994–1995)
Macro- and microvascular diagnosisAny diagnosis/No diagnosis
 Ischemic heart disease
 Renal failure
 Nephropathy
 Cerebrovascular disease
 Peripheral vascular disease
 Gangrene/ulcer of lower extremity
 Proliferative retinopathy
 Photocoagulation treatment
Infectious diagnosisAny diagnosis/No diagnosis
 Abscess/Cellulitis
 Diabetic gangrene
Laboratory measures
 Average HbA1c level<7%, 7–8%, 8–10%, ≥10%, or missing
 Serum creatinine<1.0 mg/dl, 1.0–1.3, 1.3–1.5, 1.5–2.0, ≥2.0, or missing
 Albuminuria or microalbuminuriaPresent, absent, or missing
 Total cholesterol≤240 mg/dl, >240, or missing
 LDL cholesterol≤160 mg/dl, >160, or missing
 HDL cholesterol≥35 mg/dl (males) or ≥45 mg/dl (females), <35 or <45 mg/dl, or missing
 Triglycerides≤200 mg/dl, >200 mg/dl, or missing
 Ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol≤5.6 (females) or ≤6.4 (males), >5.6 or 6.4, or missing
Pharmacy indicators (1994–1995)
 Diabetes treatmentOral hypoglycemics, insulin, insulin and oral hypoglycemics, no medication
 Use of antihypertensive medicationsNone, one, or more than one
 Use of antilipemic medicationsYes/No
Other outpatient diagnoses (1994–1995)
 Peripheral neuropathyYes/No
 ObesityYes/No
 HypertensionYes/No
 Cigarette smokingYes/No
Measures of health care use in (1994–1995)
 Number of other hospitalizationsNumber
 Number of primary care visits0, 1–3, 4–6, ≥7
 Number of urgent care visits0, 1–3, 4–6, ≥7
 Number of emergency department visits0, 1–3, 4–6, ≥7
 Number of ophthalmology/optometry visits0, 1–3, 4–6, ≥7
 Number of other specialty visits0, 1–3, 4–6, ≥7
Items from patient questionnaire
 RaceWhite, African-American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American, other, or missing
 Education<9 years, 9–11 years, high school graduate, some college, college graduate, graduate school, or missing
 Annual income<$10K, $10–20K, $20–40K, ≥40K, or missing
 Type of diabetesType 1, type 2, uncertain, or missing
 Duration of diabetes<5, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19, 20–24, 25–29, 30–34, ≥35 years, or missing
 Self-monitoring of blood glucoseNever, less than daily, at least daily, or missing
 BMI<27.3 kg/m2 in females or <27.8 in males, 27.3–35, >35, missing
 Symptoms of neuropathyYes/No
 History of hypertensionYes/No
 Cigarette smoking statusCurrent, former, never, or missing
 Alcohol consumptionNever, former, or current drinker of <7, 7–13, 14–20, or ≥21 drinks/wk, or missing
  • *

    * See Table A1 for the diagnoses included in each complication set.

  • Any of the outpatient diagnoses listed, if noted during 1994–1995, were counted as a related outpatient diagnosis for the specific complication set. There were no related outpatient diagnoses applicable to metabolic complications.

  • Missing values are a result of tests not being performed (for laboratory values) and nonresponse for questionnaire items.