Table 3

Adjusted final multiple linear regression models for the independent association between PHQ-9 score and each inflammatory marker

ModelR2Inflammatory markerAgeSexBMIMVDHbA1c
hs-CRP0.07B (SE)0.15 (0.03)−0.02 (0.003)0.20 (0.05)0.003 (0.004)0.27 (0.09)0.003 (0.002)
Standardized b0.13−0.170.100.020.080.04
P<0.001*<0.001*<0.001*0.4350.004*0.111
VEGF0.05B (SE)0.07 (0.04)−0.02 (0.003)0.14 (0.06)0.007 (0.005)0.21 (0.10)0.004 (0.002)
Standardized b0.05−0.170.070.050.070.06
P0.073<0.001*0.016*0.1100.030*0.056
IL-1β0.05B (SE)0.08 (0.04)−0.02 (0.003)0.15 (0.06)0.008 (0.005)0.22 (0.10)0.004 (0.002)
Standardized b0.06−0.170.080.050.070.06
P0.047*<0.001*0.010*0.0780.025*0.043*
IL-1RA0.06B (SE)0.20 (0.05)−0.02 (0.003)0.11 (0.06)0.003 (0.005)0.19 (0.10)0.003 (0.002)
Standardized b0.13−0.170.060.020.060.05
P<0.001*<0.001*0.056*0.4640.0570.125
MCP-10.06B (SE)0.16 (0.05)−0.02 (0.003)0.16 (0.06)0.008 (0.005)0.21 (0.10)0.003 (0.002)
Standardized b0.11−0.180.080.050.070.05
P0.001*<0.001*0.006*0.0970.032*0.068
WBC0.07B (SE)0.47 (0.10)−0.02 (0.002)0.24 (0.05)0.008 (0.004)0.24 (0.09)0.003 (0.002)
Standardized b0.13−0.180.120.050.070.04
P<0.001*<0.001*<0.001*0.041*0.008*0.093
TG0.07B (SE)0.29 (0.08)−0.02 (0.002)0.25 (0.05)0.010 (0.004)0.25 (0.09)0.003 (0.002)
Standardized b0.10−0.170.130.070.070.04
P<0.001*<0.001*<0.001*0.011*0.005*0.113
Adiponectin0.06B (SE)−0.08 (0.05)−0.01 (0.003)0.26 (0.06)0.009 (0.004)0.27 (0.09)0.003 (0.002)
Standardized b−0.05−0.160.130.060.080.05
P0.096<0.001*<0.001*0.036*0.003*0.063
  • *Significant after Simes' improved Bonferroni correction for multiple testing.

  • †Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, HbA1c, BMI, smoking, history of macrovascular disease (MVD), and prescribed medications. Only age, sex, BMI, MVD, and HbA1c are displayed here as these were the explanatory covariates.

  • ‡These variables were ln transformed.