Table 3—

Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for association of incident type 2 diabetes with energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and glycemic index by ethnicity

VariablesWhites
African-Americans
Hazard ratio (95% CI)PHazard ratio (95% CI)P
Total dietary fiber (g/day)
 Model 1*0.993 (0.981–1.012)0.2880.997 (0.979–1.015)0.739
 Model 20.999 (0.987–1.012)0.9150.998 (0.980–1.017)0.849
Cereal fiber (g/day)
 Model 10.947 (0.917–0.978)0.0010.979 (0.925–1.036)0.460
 Model 20.956 (0.925–0.987)0.0060.982 (0.927–1.039)0.525
Fruit fiber (g/day)
 Model 10.994 (0.975–1.014)0.5711.007 (0.984–1.031)0.538
 Model 21.002 (0.983–1.021)0.8411.009 (0.985–1.033)0.479
Legume fiber (g/day)
 Model 11.005 (0.957–1.056)0.8310.958 (0.879–1.043)0.323
 Model 21.007 (0.959–1.058)0.7740.961 (0.882–1.047)0.366
Glycemic index
 Model 11.000 (0.988–1.013)0.9890.999 (0.982–1.015)0.879
 Model 20.998 (0.986–1.010)0.7450.998 (0.982–1.015)0.848
 Model 31.002 (0.990–1.015)0.7301.000 (0.982–1.017)0.982
Glycemic load
 Model 11.001 (0.999–1.000)0.4990.999 (0.996–1.001)0.364
 Model 21.010 (0.999–1.003)0.3550.999 (0.996–1.002)0.414
 Model 31.002 (1.000–1.004)0.0730.999 (0.996–1.002)0.472
  • *

    * Model 1: adjusted for age, BMI, sex, field center (Forsyth, Jackson, Minneapolis, or Washington);

  • Model 2: adjusted for age, BMI, sex, field center (Forsyth, Jackson, Minneapolis, or Washington), education (less than high school, high school graduation, vocational school, college graduation, or graduate/professional school), smoking status (never, former, or current), physical activity (low, medium, or high);

  • Model 3: additionally adjusted for cereal fiber.