Table 1—

Characteristics of members with diabetes with and without prevalent CHF at baseline and with and without incident CHF at follow-up

CHF at baselineNo CHF at baselineTotalCHF at follow-upNo CHF at follow-upTotal
Proportion of population (%)11.888.2100.07.792.3100.0
Mean age (years)73.2**62.463.0
% Female53.8*47.848.546.248.047.8
Mean duration of diabetes (years)6.4**4.44.5
Ischemic heart disease diagnosed (%)
 Prior to baseline64.9*19.725.140.9*18.019.7
 Between baseline and follow-up (%)
Hypertension diagnosed
 Prior to baseline75.3*49.1%52.2%66.9*47.649.1
 Between baseline and follow-up8.911.611.4
Diabetes therapy (%)
 Oral antihyperglycemic agents46.5*58.957.552.256.055.7
 Insulin (alone or in combination)34.6*17.719.731.1*18.419.4
Baseline Measures:
 HbA1c (%)
 Serum creatinine (mg/dl)1.39**1.011.03
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)137*140139143*139140
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)74*807977*8080
 Weight (lbs.)186*203201199203203
Follow-up measures
 HbA1c (%)7.5*7.87.8
 Serum creatinine (mg/dl)1.36*0.981.02
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)138139140
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75*7878
 Weight (lbs.)199202203
  • *

    * P < 0.001 compared with no CHF;

  • P < 0.05 compared with no CHF.