Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the study subjects by sex

MenWomen
n74  155   
Age (years)68.7 ± 0.369.7 ± 0.2*
Duration of clinical diabetes (years)5.7 ± 0.75.0 ± 0.4
Previous MI (%)24.3  8.4
LVH on ECG (%)16.2 26.5 
Hypertension (%)59.5 78.7
Current smoker (%) 9.5  1.3
Consumer of alcohol (%)45.9  5.8
Apolipoprotein c4 allele (%)35.1 40.1 
BMI (kg/m2)27.7 ± 0.529.8 ± 0.4
WHR1.00 ± 0.010.92 ± 0.01
Systolic BP (mmHg)156 ± 3167 ± 2
Diastolic BP (mmHg)84 ± 182 ± 1
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)6.30 ± 0.166.53 ± 0.13
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.07 ± 0.041.15 ± 0.03
Triglycerides (mmol/l)2.31 ± 0.212.75 ± 0.29
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)10.3 ± 0.510.0 ± 0.3
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l)17.6 ± 0.817.8 ± 0.5
HbA1 (%)7.2 ± 0.27.3 ± 0.2
Fasting plasma insulin (mU/l)20.7 ± 1.424.8 ± 1.3
2-h plasma insulin (mU/l)82.3 ± 9.3114.0 ± 10.2*
Urinary ACR (mg/mmol)8.27 ± 2.299.52 ± 1.63
  • Data are means ± SE unless otherwise indicated. BP, blood pressure.

  • *

    * P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.001 (Student’s t test or χ2 test).