Table 1—

Barriers to diabetes care (adapted from Simmons et al. [16])

Barrier categoryDescription
Internal psychologicalHealth beliefs
Self factors (motivation)/self-efficacy
EducationalLow diabetes knowledge
Low knowledge of services
Internal physicalOther health conditions
Physical effects of treatment (side effects, pain associated with self-monitoring)
External physicalPersonal finance
Physical access
Limited range of services/community-based services
Physician appointment system/staffing
External psychologicalUnsatisfactory/inappropriate diabetes care
Prejudice/discrimination due to having diabetes
Lack of support (family, friends, community)
Communication/inappropriate cultural messages