Table 2—

Population characteristics

EuropeanMaoriPacific IslanderP
n115104104
Age (years)62.7 ± 12.751.8 ± 10.355.4 ± 10.4<0.0001
Duration (years)8.4 ± 10.27.5 ± 8.27.2 ± 10.00.67
Sex (% male)49.642.350.00.45
Post secondary education (%)34.831.718.30.02
HbA1c (mean)7.4 ± 1.79.6 ± 2.69.2 ± 2.6<0.0001
Receiving insulin treatment (%)12.711.89.20.71
BGM daily (%)21.99.010.70.01
BGM twice weekly (%)57.928.037.9<0.0001
Type 1 diabetes (%)5.52.23.10.43
Diabetes knowledge score (mean %)54.5 ± 20.040.3 ± 20.333.2 ± 19.5<0.0001
Personal barriers to diabetes care
 Internal physical (%)7.88.76.70.87
 Knowledge (%)11.316.410.60.39
 External physical (%)36.547.150.00.10
 Internal psychological (%)55.751.052.30.78
 External psychological (%)34.830.833.70.81
 Any barrier (%)67.875.074.00.43
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Comparisons were made using the χ2 or ANOVA procedure.