Table 1—

Studies of conversion from GDM to type 2 diabetes

EthnicityExclusion criteriaGDM criteria*Type 2 diabetes criteria*GDM (n)Length of follow-up [Mean or median (range)]Percent tested for type 2 diabetesCrude cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes (%)Reference
60% white1979 NDDGUSPHS6156 months766.614
40% other28 years?49.94
Latina (assumed)LocalLocal1810–5 years10045.349
IrishWHOWHO81010012.550
PimaWHOWHO2334–81001035
Mixed (assumed)LocalWHO4471–12 years39.11136
73% white1979 NDDGWHO863–12 months1002631
17% Asian
10% other
SwedishLocalLocal236 months to 3 years1002651
65% white1979 NDDG1979 NDDG2933–12 months70519
35% Latin, black
GermanLocalWHO506 months?452
1 year?18
8 year?46
40% East IndianDiabetes after deliveryWHOWHO604.9 years (3.5–6.5)386253
40% black
20% mixed
ChineseNormal postpartum OGTTWHOWHO1200–1 years100520
82% whiteCarpenter1979 NDDG1036.6 weeks1002.622
6% black
6% Latin
6% other
WhiteLocalWHO11181–19 years388–103
East Asian17
East Indian17
SwedishWHOWHO1453–4 years613.424
DanishLocalWHO2416 years (2–11)8113.733
24% white1979 NDDG1979 NDDG2746 months721830
31% black
35% Latin
11% other
2355 years915030
91% whiteCarpenter1979 NDDG3500–10 years1006.923
5% Latin
2% black
2% Asian
Zuni1979 NDDG1979 NDDG474.8 years (4–8)1003029
Latina1979 NDDG1979 NDDG5255–8 weeks47916
LatinaAbnormal Postpartum OGTT1979 NDDG1979 NDDG6715–7 years462217
Navajo1979 NDDGWHO1116–11 years714228
SiouxWHOWHO613 years (0–5)817054
? (Mixed)Abnormal Postpartum OGTT1979 NDDG1979 NDDG681 year491834
6 years36.8
Latina1979 NDDG1979 NDDG1794–6 weeks1005.621
LatinaAbnormal postpartum OGTT1979 NDDGWHO7715.4 months (11–26)1001532
ChineseLocalWHO8016 weeks1001355
  • *

    * 1979 NDDG criteria for GDM are administration of a 100-g glucose load, and then at least two values equaling or exceeding the following cutoff points: fasting glucose, 100 mg/dl; 1-h glucose, 190 mg/dl; 2-h glucose, 165 mg/dl; 3-h glucose, 145 mg/dl. Carpenter and Coustan (27) criteria are administration of a 100-g glucose load, and then at least two values equaling or exceeding the following cutoff points: fasting glucose, 95 mg/dl; 1-h glucose, 180 mg/dl; 2-h glucose, 155 mg/dl; 3-h glucose, 140 mg/dl. WHO criteria for GDM are administration of a 75-g glucose load, and then at least one value equaling or exceeding the following cutoff points: fasting glucose, 140 mg/dl; 2-h glucose, 140 mg/dl. 1979 NDDG criteria for type 2 diabetes are a 75-g glucose load, and then at least two values equaling or exceeding the following cutoff points: fasting glucose, 140 mg/dl; 2-h glucose, 200 mg/dl.WHO criteria for type 2 diabetes are a 75-g glucose load, and then at least one value equaling or exceeding the following cutoff points: fasting glucose, 140 mg/dl; 2-h glucose, 200 mg/dl.