Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of HOPE study participants with diabetes

Vitamin E (n = 1,838)Placebo (n = 1,816)
Demographic data
 Mean age (SD) (years)65.6 (6.5)65.2 (6.5)
 Female [n (%)]689 (37.5)669 (36.8)
Clinical characteristics
 History [n (%)]
  MI658 (35.8)667 (35.7)
  Coronary artery disease1,120 (60.9)1,069 (58.9)
  Stroke127 (6.9)117 (6.4)
  Peripheral arterial disease330 (18.0)348 (19.2)
  Any CV disease1,283 (69.8)1,228 (67.6)
  No CV disease555 (30.2)588 (32.4)
  Hypertension1,015 (55.2)1,016 (55.9)
  Hypercholesterolemia*1,186 (64.5)1,198 (66.0)
  Low HDL cholesterol363 (19.8)366 (20.2)
  Current smoking252 (13.7)297 (16.4)
 Baseline measurements [mean (SD)]
  BMI (SD) (kg/m2)28.8 (4.7)28.7 (4.8)
  Heart rate (SD) (beats/min)72.1 (11.2)72.6 (11.1)
  Systolic blood pressure (SD) (mmHg)141.9 (19.5)141.9 (19.4)
  Diastolic blood pressure (SD) (mmHg)79.4 (10.5)79.8 (10.8)
  Ankle/arm blood pressure index (SD)0.97 (0.2)0.96 (0.2)
  Waist-to-hip ratio0.93 (0.09)0.93 (0.08)
  Waist circumference (SD) (cm)99.8 (12.6)99.7 (12.5)
  Creatinine (SD) (μmol/l)93.2 (27.2)94.3 (22.3)
Diabetes and glycemic control
 Type 2 diabetes [n (%)]1,797 (97.8)1,775 (97.7)
 Mean duration of diabetes (SD) (years)11.3 (10.0)11.6 (10.9)
 Mean HbA1c (SD) (%)7.41 (1.9)7.50 (1.9)
 Microalbuminuria [n (%)]585 (31.8)572 (31.5)
 Diabetic therapy [n (%)]
 Diet alone328 (17.8)321 (17.7)
 Oral agents alone954 (51.9)936 (51.4)
 Insulin alone459 (25.0)475 (26.2)
 Insulin plus oral agents97 (5.3)84 (4.6)
Other drugs [n (%)]
 Acetylsalicylic acid/other antiplatelet agents1,077 (58.6)1,045 (57.5)
 β-Blockers516 (28.1)516 (28.4)
 Calcium-channel blockers819 (20.6)789 (43.4)
 Diuretics362 (19.7)349 (19.2)
 Hypolipidaemic agents819 (20.6)414 (22.8)
 Vitamin C supplements92 (5.0)100 (5.5)
 β-Carotene supplements20. (1.1)20. (1.1)
 Multivitamins126 (6.9)128 (7.0)
  • *

    * Hypercholesterolemia was defined as total cholesterol > 5.2 mmol/l;

  • low HDL cholesterol was defined as HDL cholesterol ≤0.9 mmol/l;

  • P < 0.05.