Table 5—

Univariate and multivariate associations between risk factors and proliferative retinopathy (SREs)

SRE95% CIP
Univariate
 Amadori albumin1.451.20–1.750.0001
 Circulating TGF-β11.291.07–1.550.007
 Systolic blood pressure1.691.37–2.100.0001
 HbA1c2.071.68–2.560.0001
Bivariate
 HbA1c and Amadori albumin
  HbA1c1.981.57–2.490.0001
  Amadori albumin1.110.89–1.380.4
 Amadori albumin and circulating TGF-β1
  Amadori albumin1.401.15–1.700.004
  Circulating TGF-β11.211.00–1.470.05
 Circulating TGF-β1 and HbA1c
  Circulating TGF-β11.200.98–1.460.08
  HbA1c2.011.63–2.490.0001
 Circulating TGF-β1 and systolic blood pressure
  Circulating TGF-β11.261.04–1.530.02
  Systolic blood pressure1.671.35–2.070.0001
Multivariate
 Circulating TGF-β1, HbA1c, and Amadori albumin
  Circulating TGF-β11.190.97–1.450.1
  HbA1c1.951.55–2.460.0001
  Amadori albumin1.080.87–1.350.3
 Circulating TGF-β1, HbA1c, Amadori albumin, and systolic blood pressure
  Circulating TGF-β11.160.95–1.430.2
  HbA1c1.951.54–2.480.0001
  Amadori albumin1.070.85–1.340.6
  Systolic blood pressure1.661.32–2.080.0001
  • All SREs have been adjusted for age.