Table 3—

Relationship between fasting glucose, proinsulin, and insulin concentrations and insulin resistance and β-cell function and birth weight and maternal characteristics in all 800 twins

Birthweight
Maternal BMI before pregnancy
Maternal age at delivery
% Change per 100 g95% CIP% Change per 1 kg/m295% CIP% Change per 1 year95% CIP
Fasting glucose0.0%(−0.1 to 0.2%)0.740.2%(−0.1 to 0.4%)0.17−0.1%(−0.3 to 0.1%)0.22
Fasting pro-insulin−0.3%(−1.5 to 1.2%)0.71−3.1%(−5.1 to −1.1%)0.0030.7%(−0.7 to 2.1%)0.32
Fasting insulin−0.8%(−1.6 to 0.1%)0.09−1.3%(−2.6 to −0.1%)0.04*1.1%(0.2 to 2.0%)0.012
Insulin resistance (HOMA)−0.6%(−1.5 to 0.3%)0.20−1.3%(−2.6 to 0.0%)0.050.9%(0.0 to 1.8%)0.04
β-Cell function (HOMA)−1.0%(−1.9 to −0.1%)0.04−2.1%(−3.6 to −0.7%)0.0051.4%(0.4 to 2.4%)0.008
  • Data were adjusted for sex, gestational age, adult BMI, and age.

  • *

    * Interaction with sex: P = 0.02; men: 0.1% change per 1 kg/m2, P = 0.82; women: −2.7% change per 1 kg/m2, P = 0.003.

  • Interaction with sex: P = 0.03; men: 0.0% change per 1 kg/m2, P = 0.99; women: −2.5% change per 1 kg/m2, P = 0.005.