Table 3—

Body composition and physical activity parameters

Dependent variablePRT groupControl groupP*
n3131
Body weight (kg)
 Baseline79.3 ± 3.278.6 ± 3.1
 Final79.5 ± 3.379.4 ± 2.90.89
Whole-body lean tissue mass (kg)
 Baseline44.3 ± 1.744.9 ± 1.9
 Final45.5 ± 1.944.8 ± 1.70.04
Arm lean tissue mass (kg)
 Baseline4.0 ± 0.24.1 ± 0.2
 Final4.4 ± 0.34.1 ± 0.20.08
Trunk lean tissue mass (kg)
 Baseline21.9 ± 0.822.3 ± 0.9
 Final22.4 ± 0.822.5 ± 0.90.08
Leg lean tissue mass (kg)
 Baseline12.9 ± 0.612.7 ± 0.6
 Final13.1 ± 0.612.8 ± 0.50.07
Whole-body fat mass (kg)
 Baseline35.0 ± 2.233.7 ± 2.4
 Final34.0 ± 2.334.6 ± 2.20.26
Arm fat mass (kg)
 Baseline4.6 ± 0.44.5 ± 0.4
 Final4.7 ± 0.44.6 ± 0.30.69
Trunk fat mass (kg)
 Baseline18.8 ± 1.118.2 ± 1.3
 Final18.1 ± 1.219.0 ± 1.10.01
Leg fat mass (kg)
 Baseline10.6 ± 0.89.4 ± 0.7
 Final10.6 ± 0.99.4 ± 0.70.41
Waist circumference (cm)
 Baseline99.7 ± 2.3100.1 ± 2.6
 Final97.5 ± 2.3102.0 ± 2.20.07
Leisure physical activity score
 Baseline8.4 ± 1.912.8 ± 2.9
 Final28.3 ± 0.97.2 ± 2.80.001
Household physical activity score
 Baseline37.2 ± 4.832.4 ± 4.5
 Final56.6 ± 5.826.2 ± 4.10.001
  • Data are means ± SE. Fat-free mass and total and trunk fat mass were determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Self-report past 7-day physical activity was assessed using PASE.

  • *

    * ANCOVA with the absolute change on each dependent variable (week 16 − week 0) adjusted for insulin use, years of diabetes, sex, and the changes in physical activity and in diabetes medication regimens. For physical activity the same covariates were used except for the change in physical activity.