Table 1

Baseline characteristics for participants

CharacteristicsLifestyle measures only (N = 2,608)OHAs and insulin therapy (N = 7,187)Entire cohort (N = 9,795)P value*
Male (%)1,616 (62.0%)4,522 (62.9%)6,138 (62.7%)0.387
Age (years)62.2 (6.8)62.2 (6.9)62.2 (6.9)0.622
Diabetes duration (years)2.0 (1–5)6 (3–11)5.0 (2–10)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)29.3 (26.4–33.0)30.0 (27.0–33.8)29.8 (26.7–33.5)<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)102 (13)104 (13)104 (13)<0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio0.92 (0.08)0.94 (0.08)0.93 (0.08)<0.001
Laboratory data
 HbA1c (%)6.0 (5.6–6.7)7.2 (6.4–8.2)6.8 (6.1–7.8)<0.001
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)42 (38–50)55 (46–66)51 (43–62)
 Plasma glucose (mmol/L)7.1 (6.2 –8.2)8.9 (7.4–10.9)8.3 (6.9–10.3)<0.001
 Serum insulin (U/mL)12 (8.0–17)12 (8.0–19)12 (8.0–18.5)<0.001
 LDL-C (mmol/L)3.16 (0.67)3.08 (0.66)3.10 (0.66)<0.001
 HDL-C (mmol/L)1.11 (0.27)1.09 (0.26)1.10 (0.27)0.009
 ApoA-I (g/L)1.30 (0.21)1.29 (0.21)1.29 (0.21)0.028
 HDL-C/apoA-I (mg/mg)0.33 (0.04)0.32 (0.04)0.32 (0.04)0.020
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.68 (1.28–2.21)1.74 (1.33–2.32)1.72 (1.32–2.29)<0.001
 ALT (U/L)22.5 (17.5–30.5)24.0 (18.0–33.0)23.5 (17.5–32.5)<0.001
 eGFR88.2 (18.6)88.0 (19.4)88.1 (19.2)0.703
 Microalbuminuria555 (21.3%)1,549 (21.6%)2,104 (21.5%)0.788
 Macroalbuminuria97 (3.7%)307 (4.3%)404 (4.1%)0.228
HOMA-derived valuesN = 2,560N = 5,711N = 8,271
 HOMA-IR (ratio)1.64 (1.09–2.44)1.70 (1.15–2.52)1.68 (1.12–2.48)<0.001
 HOMA-B (%)64.2 (43.8–91.3)43.6 (27.9–67.8)50.2 (31.6–76.0)<0.001
  • Continuous data are expressed as median (IQR) or mean (SD), and categorical data are shown as indicated.

  • *Statistical tests compared those commencing on lifestyle only measures to those commencing on OHAs and/or insulin therapy. P values were obtained using χ2 tests for categorical variables, one-way ANOVA for normally distributed continuous variables, or Kruskal-Wallis tests for nonnormally distributed continuous variables.

  • †Microalbuminuria is defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥2.5 and <25 mg/mmol for men and ≥3.5 and <35 mg/mmol for women. Macroalbuminuria is defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio >25 mg/mmol for men and >35 mg/mmol for women.

  • ‡The HOMA model defines HOMA-B of 100% and HOMA-IR of 1 as normal.