Table 1—

Characteristics and comparison of study population by type of diabetes

CharacteristicType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetes
N7841,257
Age (years)34.5 (25.4–44.1)57.6 (49.9–67.3)
Female sex430 (55)613 (49)
Race white705 (91)1,010 (81)
Education
 Less than high school57 (7)123 (10)
 High school graduate132 (17)316 (25)
 Some college288 (37)371 (29)
 College graduate183 (23)197 (16)
 Any postgraduate work124 (16)250 (20)
BMI (kg/m2)25.7 (22.9–29.4)30.4 (26.2–36.0)
Duration in years20.3 (12.0–27.8)10.4 (4.0–17.2)
Diabetes treatment
 None or diet0 (0)89 (7)
 Oral medication0 (0)487 (39)
 Insulin784 (100)681 (54)
Retinopathy status
 Retinopathy199 (25)204 (16)
 Blind in one eye62 (8)129 (10)
 Blind in both eyes90 (11)135 (11)
Nephropathy status
 Diabetic kidney disease184 (23)199 (16)
 Dialysis18 (2)21 (2)
 Transplant28 (4)16 (1)
Neuropathy status
 Tingling and burning72 (9)192 (15)
 Neuropathy208 (27)376 (30)
 Sores57 (7)92 (7)
 Amputation24 (3)37 (3)
Stroke status
 TIA or stroke27 (3)107 (9)
 Stroke with residual14 (2)57 (5)
Cardiovascular status
 Angina22 (3)104 (8)
 Myocardial infarction25 (3)140 (11)
 Congestive heart failure28 (4)141 (11)
High blood pressure status
 Not treated54 (7)102 (8)
 Treated with medications222 (28)669 (53)
Cholesterol status
 High cholesterol108 (14)276 (22)
 Treated with medications133 (17)459 (37)
  • Data are median (interquartile range) or frequency (%). Stroke with residual: stroke with any persistent difficulty speaking, any weakness, or difficulties performing daily activities or working. TIA, transient ischemic attack.