Table 2—

Penalty functions and marginal means for QWB-SA health utility scores

Disease statusComplication levelModel for type 1 diabetic subjects
Marginal meanModel for type 2 diabetic subjects
Marginal mean
PenaltySEPenaltySE
Intercept0.6720.0070.6890.014
SexFemale−0.0330.0080.557−0.0380.0070.528
BMI (kg/m2)Obese−0.0160.0100.526−0.0210.0070.534
Diabetes interventionNone or diet only-----0.601
Oral antidiabetic agents---−0.0230.0130.560
Insulin---−0.0340.0130.520
RetinopathyBlind in one eye−0.0240.0150.534−0.0430.0110.510
Blind in two eyes−0.2080.0130.347−0.1700.0110.361
NephropathyDiabetic kidney disease−0.0170.0100.525−0.0110.0090.509
Dialysis−0.0230.0270.453−0.0780.0260.404
NeuropathyTingling and burning−0.0670.0140.545−0.0600.0100.528
Neuropathy−0.0550.0100.513−0.0650.0080.508
Sores−0.0760.0160.504−0.0990.0130.474
Amputation−0.1160.0230.414−0.1050.0200.438
StrokeTIA or stroke−0.0180.0220.482−0.0440.0120.480
Stroke with residual−0.1050.0300.386−0.0720.0160.420
Cardiovascular diseaseCongestive heart failure−0.0580.0220.401−0.0520.0110.453
High blood pressureHigh BP/high BP with meds (combined)−0.0320.0100.507−0.0110.0070.528
  • BP, blood pressure; TIA, transient ischemic attack.