Table 1

Characteristics and visit-to-visit glycemic variability of patients included in the analysis of the intensive glucose treatment group and total patients in ADVANCE trial

VariablesIntensive glucose treatment groupTotal ADVANCE (n = 11,140)
Included patients (n = 4,399)Excluded patients (n = 1,172)
Demographics
 Age, years65.5 ± 6.366.4 ± 6.665.8 ± 6.4
 Men, %42.642.742.5
 Residence in East Asia*, %31.920.529.6
Medical and lifestyle history
 History of major macrovascular disease, %31.036.732.2
 History of major microvascular disease, %8.616.610.4
 Baseline smoking status, %15.415.715.1
 Baseline alcohol intake, %29.232.530.5
 Duration of diabetes, %
  0–5 years44.039.743.3
  6–10 years27.327.027.0
  11–15 years18.019.317.8
  16+ years10.714.011.9
Risk factors at baseline
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg144.4 ± 21.4147.1 ± 22.6145.0 ± 21.5
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg80.9 ± 11.080.4 ± 11.180.6 ± 10.9
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.2 ± 1.25.2 ± 1.25.2 ± 1.2
 Triglyceride, mmol/L1.6 (1.2–2.3)1.6 (1.2–2.3)1.6 (1.2–2.3)
 BMI, kg/m228.3 ± 5.128.5 ± 5.328.3 ± 5.2
 Nonstudy blood pressure–lowering drug, %74.776.575.1
 Nonstudy glucose-lowering treatment
 Oral glucose-lowering agent, %91.391.290.9
 Insulin, %1.51.51.4
 Randomized intensive glucose lowering, %10010050
 Randomized perindopril-indapamide, %50.149.350.0
HbA1c or fasting glucose variability during the evaluation period using five measurements
 Mean HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)6.9 (52) ± 0.9 (9.8)
 SD HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)0.6 (6.6) ± 0.4 (4.4)
 Maximum HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)7.7 (61) ± 1.4 (15.3)
 CV HbA1c, %8.6 ± 5.4
 VIM HbA1c, %0.6 ± 0.3
 RSD HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)0.5 (5.5) ± 0.4 (4.4)
 ARV HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)0.6 (6.6) ± 0.5 (5.5)
 Mean fasting glucose, mmol/L7.6 ± 1.7
 SD fasting glucose, mmol/L1.4 ± 1.0
 Maximum fasting glucose, mmol/L9.4 ± 2.7
 CV fasting glucose, mmol/L17.9 ± 10.2
 VIM fasting glucose, mmol/L1.4 ± 0.7
 RSD fasting glucose, mmol/L1.3 ± 0.9
 ARV fasting glucose, mmol/L1.5 ± 1.4
HbA1c or fasting glucose variability during the evaluation period using three measurements
 Mean HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)6.84 (51) ± 0.94 (10.3)
 SD HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)0.56 (6.1) ± 0.47 (5.1)
 Maximum HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)7.38 (57) ± 1.26 (13.8)
 CV HbA1c, %7.87 ± 5.86
 VIM HbA1c, %0.53 ± 0.37
 RSD HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)0.44 (4.8) ± 0.49 (5.4)
 ARV HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)0.67 (7.3) ± 0.60 (6.6)
 Mean fasting glucose, mmol/L7.51 ± 1.76
 SD fasting glucose, mmol/L1.32 ± 1.12
 Maximum fasting glucose, mmol/L8.81 ± 2.57
 CV fasting glucose, mmol/L16.9 ± 11.8
 VIM fasting glucose, mmol/L1.27 ± 0.85
 RSD fasting glucose, mmol/L1.11 ± 0.19
 ARV fasting glucose, mmol/L1.62 ± 1.47
  • Values are mean ± SD for continuous variables, median (interquartile range) for triglycerides, and percentage for categorical variables. HbA1c values in IFCC-recommended units were reported in parentheses if appropriate. Higher value of each index of variability represents greater visit-to-visit glycemic variability.

  • *Patients recruited in the Republic of China.