Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of Study of Osteopathic Fractures cohort evaluated for disability outcomes by diabetes status

VariableNondiabetic subjects (n = 7,817)Diabetic subjects (n = 527)P
Disease duration
 ≤5 years200 (38)
 5–14 years196 (37)
 ≥15 years127 (24)
Insulin use77 (15)
Age (years)71.3 ± 5.071.4 ± 4.80.44
BMI (kg/m2)26.3 ± 4.428.7 ± 5.3<0.001
Education less than high school21.130.2<0.001
Marital status
 Married50.845.50.02
 Widowed36.743.50.002
 Separated/divorced/unmarried12.611.00.34
Smoking9.78.90.56
Walking for exercise53.645.4<0.001
Current estrogen use14.57.7<0.001
Benzodiazepine use13.719.4<0.001
Hypertension36.253.9<0.001
CHD*13.826.2<0.001
Stroke2.05.4<0.001
Arthritis60.567.60.002
Visual impairment12.116.50.03
Depression score ≥6*3.76.60.003
Cognitive impairment16.621.0<0.01
  • Data are n (%), means ± SD, or %.

  • *

    * Estimates are based on the second study visit for CHD (n = 6,907) and depression (n = 6,872).