Table 2—

Predictors of any disability among women with diabetes

PredictorsAge-adjusted HRR*Multivariate HRR*
Baseline functional difficulty2.16 (1.68–2.78)1.59 (1.21–2.10)
BMI (kg/m2)
 (< 25)1.01.0
 (25–29.9)1.56 (1.09–2.23)1.40 (0.97–2.01)
 (≥ 30)2.57 (1.82–3.63)2.00 (1.39–2.89)
Age (years)
 (65–69)1.01.0
 (70–74)1.20 (0.89–1.61)1.15 (0.85–1.56)
 (75–79)1.52 (1.08–2.15)1.61 (1.13–2.30)
 (80–84)1.57 (0.92–2.67)1.42 (0.81–2.50)
 (≥ 85)1.84 (0.68–5.01)2.84 (1.02–7.93)
CHD1.93 (1.48–2.52)1.72 (1.30–2.27)
Arthritis1.75 (1.31–2.33)1.38 (1.02–1.86)
Physical activity (highest versus lowest quartile)0.49 (0.34–0.70)0.61 (0.41–0.91)
Visual impairment
 Mild/moderate (20/42 to 20/76)1.04 (0.73–1.49)
 Severe (20/80 or worse)2.11 (1.03–4.34)2.18 (1.03–4.63)
Estrogen use
 Former (versus never)0.68 (0.49–0.94)0.68 (0.49–0.96)
 Present (versus never)1.05 (0.67–1.64)
Depression1.89 (1.16–3.08)
Benzodiazepine use (%)1.23 (0.90–1.68)
Education (group)0.90 (0.78–1.02)
Stroke1.46 (0.94–2.27)
Cognitive impairment0.89 (0.65–1.23)
Insulin treatment1.29 (0.92–1.82)
Disease duration (per 5 years)0.97 (0.82–1.14)
Smoking
 Former (versus never)0.92 (0.69–1.22)
 Present (versus never)1.01 (0.64–1.61)
  • *

    * Data are HRR (95% CI). Third column includes only variables significant at the <0.05 level in multivariate analyses; data presented represent HRRs conducted only among those with diabetes who had all variables present in multivariate analyses (n = 472).