Table 1—

Clinical features at the onset in Ab-negative and Ab-positive type 1 diabetes

Clinical characteristicsAb-negative type 1 diabetes (n = 31)
Ab-positive type 1 diabetes, group 3P
Fulminant, group 1Nonfulminant, group 2Group 1 vs. group 2Group 1 vs. group 3Group 2 vs. group 3
n22978
Onset age (years)36 ± 15 (21–65)31 ± 12 (15–53)34 ± 16 (2–71)NSNSNS
Sex (M/F)15/76/340/38NSNSNS
BMI (kg/m2)20.7 ± 2.6 (16.7–28.7)18.6 ± 1.6 (17.0–21.7)18.6 ± 2.4 (13.8–24.4)0.02080.0013NS
Duration of diabetic symptoms (days)4 ± 3 (1–10)57 ± 40 (2–90)50 ± 33 (1–90)0.0013<0.0001NS
Plasma glucose (mmol/l)46.8 ± 21.5 (16.9–102.0)27.9 ± 17.2 (11.3–71.1)26.0 ± 12.4 (11.9–70.9)0.0096<0.0001NS
HbA1c (%)6.7 ± 1.2 (4.3–8.3)12.7 ± 2.2 (8.6–15.5)11.1 ± 2.8 (5.1–19.1)<0.0001<0.0001NS
Arterial blood pH7.10 ± 0.15 (6.91–7.34)7.25 ± 0.11 (7.15–7.35)7.29 ± 0.12 (7.02–7.39)NS0.0024NS
ΣC-peptide (nmol/l)0.065 ± 0.143 (0.000–0.540)2.313 ± 1.477 (0.000–4.866)2.606 ± 1.659 (0.000–7.404)<0.0001<0.0001NS
Pancreatic enzymes
 Elastase 1 (ng/dl) (22–221)*888 ± 771 (125–2,900)100 ± 49 (59–154)177 ± 253 (17–1,900)0.0017<0.0001NS
 Amylase (IU/l) (111–336)*2,463 ± 3,235 (182–10,930)150 ± 47 (98–235)292 ± 734 (92–6,299)0.0010<0.0001NS
 Lipase (units/l) (25–170)*862 ± 1,755 (59–5,815)78 ± 51 (20–138)100 ± 52 (19–273)0.01010.0002NS
  • Data are means ± SD (range). See the text for more detailed definition of each group of subjects. Ab, diabetes-related autoantibodies, including ICAs, GAD autoantibodies, IA-2Abs, and insulin autoantibodies; ∑C-peptide, integrated values of C-peptide at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min during 75-g OGTT.

  • *

    * Normal range.