Table 4—

Frequencies of the combinations of HLA-DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes in Ab-negative and Ab-positive type 1 diabetes

DQA1*-DQB1*/DQA1*-DQB1*Ab-negative type 1 diabetes
Ab-positive type 1 diabetes, group 3 (n = 78)Nondiabetic control subjects (n = 84)P value vs. control subjects (and RR)
Fulminant, group 1 (n = 22)Nonfulminant, group 2 (n = 9)Group 1Group 2Group 3
0303-0401/0303-04017 (32)0 (0)6 (8)1 (1)1 × 10−4 (38.7)§NSNS
0303-0401/0302-03033 (14)0 (0)10 (13)0 (0)0.016 (13.3)NS0.001 (12.4)
0302-0303/0302-03031 (5)1 (11)15 (19)2 (2)NSNS8 × 10−4 (9.8)
0303-0401/0303-X0 (0)0 (0)2 (3)1 (1)
0303-0401/0302-X0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
0302-0303/0303-X0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)2 (2)
0302-0303/0302-X0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
0303-X/0303-X0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
0303-X/0302-X0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
0302-X/0302-X0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
0303-0401/Y-X5 (23)2 (22)16 (21)15 (18)
0302-0303/Y-X4 (18)4 (44)14 (18)12 (14)
0303-X/Y-X0 (0)1 (11)3 (4)8 (10)
0302-X/Y-X0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Y-X/Y-X2 (9)1 (11)12 (15)43 (51)4 × 10−4 (0.1)0.046 (0.1)2 × 10−6 (0.2)
  • Data are n (%). See the text for more detailed definition of each group of subjects. Ab, diabetes-related autoantibodies, incuding ICAs, GAD autoantibodies, IA-2Abs, and insulin autoantibodies.

  • §

    § P = 0.014 for the comparison with group 3, DQB1*X ≠ DQB1*0401 or DQB1*0303, DQA1*Y ≠ DQA1*0303 or DQA1*0302.