Table 1—

Comparability analysis and rate of GDM by maternal characteristics among all non-aboriginal (GP) and aboriginal (AB) women who were tested

CharacteristicGP (n=1,360)*
AB (n=252)*
GP vs. AB P value
n% GDMn% GDM
Age (years)
    <20620484.2
    20–24.92703.0834.8
    25–29.94383.76013.3
    30–34.94043.04219.0
    ≥351866.51936.8
    Mean ±SD28.5 ±5.325.0 ±6.0<0.001
Pregravid BMI (kg/m2)
    <201953.6402.5
    20–24.96883.21146.1
    25–26.91321.5180
    27–29.91512.62913.8
    ≥301946.75133.3
    Mean ±SD24.6 ±5.525.3 ±6.0NS
Weight gain in index pregnancy (kg)
    <92367.24124.4
    9–188582.713010.0
    >182663.0807.5
    Mean ±SD14.6 ±5.616.0 ±7.30.005
Previous pregnancies
    04603.3735.5
    14572.8614.9
    22604.64613.0
    ≥31834.47222.2
    Mean ±SD1.3 ±1.41.9 ±2.0<0.001
Family history of diabetes in parent or sibling
    No11022.71377.3
    Yes1649.17417.6
    %13.035.1<0.001
Hypertension in index pregnancy
    No12433.22239.4
    Yes1176.82927.6
    %8.611.5NS
Physical activity in index pregnancy (times per week)
    <12375.52412.5
    1–23264.64814.6
    3–44042.0819.9
    5–73133.2787.7
    % Activity ≥3 times per week56.068.8<0.001
Among multigravida
    Previous GDM
        No7451.613310.5
        Yes2744.41838.9
        %3.511.9<0.001
    Previous macrosomic infant (>4,000 g)
        No5742.8867.0
        Yes2033.97323.3
        %26.145.9<0.001
    Previous stillbirth
        No7283.315113.2
        Yes180650.0
        %2.43.8NS
Number of risk factors for GDM
        04762.3873.4
        15303.0754.0
        22583.55317.0
        3848.32020.0
        ≥41241.71758.8
        Mean ±SD1.3 ±1.01.6 ±1.20.005
  • *

    * Information not complete for all variables;

  • defined as any kind of continuous aerobic activity or exercise for at least 20 min;

  • risk factor for GDM defined as age ≥30 years, pregravid BMI ≥27 kg/m2, parent and/or sibling family history of diabetes, previous GDM, previous macrosomic infant (>4,000 g), or previous stillbirth.