Table 3—

Delivery and infant outcomes in pregnancies with and without GDM according to ethnicity

VariablePregnancies in GPPregnancies in AB population
With GDMWithout GDMOR (95% CI)With GDMWithout GDMOR (95% CI)
Delivery outcomes
n481,31229223
    Pregnancy-related hypertension17 (8)8 (109)2.2 (1.0–4.8)28 (8)9.4 (21)3.7 (1.5–9.3)*
    Epidural anesthetic versus all other64.6 (31)58.6 (769)1.3 (0.7–2.4)31 (9)51.1 (114)0.4 (0.2–0.99)
    Spinal anesthetic Versus all other10.4 (5)11.1 (145)1.0 (0.4–2.4)27.6 (8)10.3 (23)3.3 (1.3–8.3)
    Previous C-section4.2 (2)12.0 (158)0.3 (0.1–1.3)24.1 (7)9.9 (22)2.9 (1.1–7.6)
    C-section versus all other delivery18.8 (9)18.1 (237)1.1 (0.5–2.2)31.0 (9)15.7 (35)2.4 (1.0–5.7)
    ≥2° laceration and advanced trauma to perineum/vulva48.3 (21)28.7 (377)1.9 (1.1–3.5)24.1 (7)19.7 (44)1.3 (0.5–3.2)
    Shoulder dystocia2.1 (1)2.4 (32)0.8 (0.1–6.4)00.9 (2)
    Mean ±SD total risk score (equals ante + intrapartum)4.6 ±2.23.0 ±2.1P < .0015.0 ±2.43.2 ±2.5P < 0.001
Infant outcomes
    n501,33229224
    Mean ±SD gestational age (weeks)38.8 ±2.039.5 ±1.7t test*38.9 ±2.639.4 ±1.9t test, NS
    Mean ±SD birth weight (g)3,333 ±5683,430 ±531t test, NS3,668 ±7953,496 ±635t test, NS
    Large gestational age >90th percentile14 (7)10.2 (136)1.4 (0.6–3.3)27.6 (8)17.9 (40)1.8 (0.7–4.2)
    Small gestational age <10th percentile8 (4)8 (107)1.0 (0.4–2.8)3.4 (1)10.3 (23)0.3 (0.04–2.4)
    High birth weight (>4,000 g)8 (4)12.5 (167)0.6 (0.2–1.7)34.5 (10)17.9 (40)2.4 (1.1–5.6)
    Low birth weight (<2,500 g)4 (2)5.2 (69)0.8 (0.2–3.2)3.4 (1)7.6 (17)0.4 (0.1–3.4)
    Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight14 (7)6.2 (82)2.5 (1.1–5.7)6.9 (2)7.6 (17)0.9 (0.2–4.1)
    Hypoglycemia2 (1)0.8 (11)2.5 (0.3–19.4)6.9 (2)0.4 (1)16.5 (1.5–188)
    Any congenital anomalies14 (7)6.2 (82)2.5 (1.1–5.7)6.9 (2)8.9 (20)0.8 (0.2–3.4)
  • Data are % (n) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05;

  • interpretation of total score: 0–2, low risk; 3–6, moderate risk; >6, high risk.