Table 1—

Twelve subjects positive for two or more d-aab at initial sampling

SubjectSexEthnicityAge screenedYears to dxGADAICA512AIAAICAHLA-DQ haplotypesins5′ VNTRCTLA-4MIC-A
7197MCaucasian14.46.10.091.520.00158A0501-B0301; A0301-B0302C/C102 1205.0 6.0
7664FCaucasian16.93.00.570.000.0819A0501-B0201; A0501-B0201C/C104 1065.1 5.1
10211FHispanic13.11.30.091.060.0439A0501-B0201; A0301-B0302C/N084 0844.0 4.0
10262FCaucasian15.32.40.250.590.6819A0401-B0402; A0301-B0302C/C084 1025.0 9.0
21038FCaucasian14.53.20.350.250.0521A0401-B0402; A0301-B0302C/C084 1025.0 5.1
20703MCaucasian12.70.10.050.360.056A0501-B0201; A0301-B0201C/C084 1025.0 5.1
7035MCaucasian17.8Healthy0.750.000.2519A0501-B0201; A0201-B0303C/C102 1024.0 9.0
9347MCaucasian13.7Healthy0.410.000.0911A0501-B0201; A0101-B0501C/N084 1025.1 5.1
7147FCaucasian16.3Healthy0.270.000.114A0401-B0402; A0301-B0302C/C084 0845.0 9.0
11215FCaucasian12.6Healthy0.970.020.18158A0501-B0201; A0301-B0302C/C084 0845.0 5.1
9270FCaucasian14.5Healthy0.090.100.004A0101-B0603; A0301-B0302C/C122 1225.1 6.0
11320FCaucasian13.5Healthy0.130.210.0170A0301-B0302; A0301-B0302C/C124 1024.0 6.0
  • Detailed immunogenetic analysis of 12 subjects with two or more defined autoantibodies at initial sampling. Autoantibody indices above the 99th percentile are in bold, and those above only the 97.5th percentile are in italics. For all genotypes, bolding denotes diabetes risk. Overall HLA DQ genotypes were assigned as susceptible or resistant based on published relative risks. The insulin gene promoter was typed by PCR/restriction fragment–length polymorphism. C, cutter (susceptible); N, noncutter (resistant) (41). For CTLA-4, 3′ untranslated region microsatellite allele 102 is in bold to indicate susceptibility, as shown in other autoimmune diseases (35). MHC Class I Chain Associated (MIC-A) coding region microsatellite alleles 5.0 and 5.1 are in bold to denote susceptibility (34). Ins, insulin; dx, diagnosis.