Table 1—

Clinical characteristics at entry of patients with progression of retinopathy ≤2 and ≥3 levels

Progression ≤2 levelsProgression ≥3 levelsP
n31 (74)11 (26)
Age at first eye examination61.7 ± 8.063.1 ± 5.60.5
Sex
    Men14 (45)8 (73)
    Women17 (55)3 (27)
Duration of diabetes at entry (years)8.8 ± 5.211.9 ± 5.30.1
Weight (kg)80.5 (13.3)83.8 (16.0)0.54
BMI (kg/m2)27.6 (3.9)25.3 (4.1)0.11
C-peptide0.78 (0.43)0.72 (0.42)0.72
Smoking5 (16)2 (18)0.9
Hypertension21 (68)5 (45)0.3
Degree of retinopathy at entry
    None (level 10/10)17 (55)4 (36)*0.2
    Mild nonproliferative DR (level 21, 10–31, 31)12 (39)4 (36)
    Moderate nonproliferative DR (level <41, 41–51, <51)2 (6)3 (27)
Macular edema or treatment2 (6)3 (27)0.1
Visual acuity, best eye (Monoyer, median, range)1.0 (0.5–1.0)1.0 (0.5–1.0)0.8
Albuminuria at entry (≥20 mikrog min−1)10 (32)4 (36)0.9
Peripheral pulses absent4 (13)2 (18)0.8
Achilles reflexes absent9 (29)6 (55)0.2
Patellar reflexes absent3 (10)2 (18)0.7
Vibration sense (worse leg, median range)20 (10–50)32 (11–35)0.11
  • Data are n (%) or mean ± SD, unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Percentages do not add up to 100 because of rounding.