Table 1

Clinical data in 115 women with type 1 diabetes with excessive, appropriate, and insufficient gestational weight gain according to the IOM recommendations

Excessive
(n = 62)Appropriate
(n = 37)Insufficient
(n = 16)P value
Maternal age, years29 (21–39)33 (23–43)31 (21–39)0.03
Prepregnancy BMI, kg/m225.3 (18–41)23.5 (18–31)22.7 (20–30)0.05
Duration of diabetes, years14 (1–37)14 (1–38)9 (2–26)0.36
Smokers7 (11)4 (11)1 (6)1.00
Insulin pump therapy14 (23)9 (24)6 (38)0.48
Diabetic retinopathy28 (48)13 (37)4 (25)0.22
Antihypertensive therapy at referral, n = 1042 (3)2 (1)0 (0)0.64
Microalbuminuria at 8 weeks1 (2)2 (1)0 (0)0.41
HbA1c, %, mmol/mol
 8 weeks6.7 (5.6–8.4), 50 (38–68)6.5 (5.4–8.3), 48 (36–67)6.6 (5.6–8.3), 49 (38–67)0.78
 21 weeks6.0 (4.9–7.7), 42 (30–61)6.0 (5.2–7.1), 42 (33–54)6.1 (5.0–7.6), 43 (31–60)0.51
 36 weeks6.0 (5.1–6.9), 42 (32–52)6.0 (4.7–7.1), 42 (28–54)6.3 (5.1–7.0), 45 (32–53)0.40
Insulin dose, IU/kg/24 h
 8 weeks0.62 (0.23–1.31)0.61 (0.20–1.43)0.57 (0.23–0.91)0.36
 36 weeks1.09 (0.10–1.88)0.94 (0.38–2.25)1.00 (0.30–1.31)0.30
Mild hypoglycemia, events/week, n = 88
 8 weeks7 (0–30)5 (1–14)5 (0–10)0.13
 36 weeks5 (0–21)3 (0–27)4 (0–10)0.61
Blood pressure ≥135/85 mmHg after 20 weeks of gestation without proteinuria11 (18)0 (0)0 (0)0.004
Gestational weight gain
 Total, kg17.7 (10–30)13.1 (6–16)8.5 (−2 to 11)<0.001
 Prepregnancy–8 weeks, g/week257 (−303 to 2,016)216 (−335 to 515)87 (−385 to 463)0.003
 8–21 weeks, g/week405 (42–818)293 (−177 to 717)171 (−692 to 338)<0.001
 21–36 weeks, g/week640 (271–1,173)444 (27–771)350 (−100 to 533)<0.001
  • Trend analysis for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables. Results are given as median (range) or n (%).