Table 2

Pregnancy outcomes and antenatal ultrasound data in 115 women with type 1 diabetes with excessive, appropriate, and insufficient gestational weight gain according to the IOM recommendations

Excessive
(n = 62)Appropriate
(n = 37)Insufficient
(n = 16)P value
Gestational age at delivery, days265 (259–278)267 (259–280)267 (259–274)0.13
Vaginal delivery38 (61)21 (57)13 (81)0.23
Birth weight, g3,681 (2,374–4,500)3,395 (2,910–4,322)3,295 (2,766–4,340)0.02
Birth weight SD score1.08 (−1.90 to 3.25)0.45 (−0.83 to 3.18)−0.02 (−1.51 to 2.96)0.009
Birth length, cm, n = 8852 (47–60)51 (47–55)51 (49–53)0.35
Ponderal index, g/cm3, n = 882.60 (1.93–3.14)2.59 (2.27–3.09)2.50 (2.17–3.09)0.45
Fetal abdominal circumference at 36 gestational weeks, SD score, n = 881.54 (−1.05 to 4.15)1.21 (−1.02 to 3.79)0.48 (−0.95 to 2.78)0.04
Large for gestational age29 (47)11 (30)4 (25)0.12
Small for gestational age1 (2)0 (0)1 (6)0.36
Admission to neonatal intensive care unit10 (16)6 (16)3 (19)0.94
Infant 2-h plasma glucose, mmol/L2.9 (1.3–5.9)2.5 (0.9–4.9)2.9 (1.5–3.6)0.06
Severe neonatal hypoglycemia3 (5)4 (11)1 (7)0.53
Transient tachypnea of the newborn7 (11)3 (8)1 (6)0.91
Neonatal jaundice3 (5)1 (3)1 (6)0.87
  • Trend analysis for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables. Results are given as median (range) or n (%).