Table 1—

Characteristics measured at baseline in individuals with or without incident PVD at 6 years after diagnosis of diabeteslegend

Potential risk factorPVD present at 6 years but not at diagnosis of diabetes
P value*
YesNo
n612,337
Age (years)57.660.0<0.001
Sex (% men/women)57600.67
Race (% White/South Asian/Afro-Caribbean)84/11/582/11/70.79
0.48
Height (cm)166.6 (9)167.8 (10)0.35
BMI (kg/m2)26.7 (4.20)27.6 (5.06)0.17
SBP (mmHg)145 (22)134 (19)<0.001
DBP (mmHg)83 (10)82 (10)0.39
HbA1c (%)7.9 (1.8)7.2 (1.8)<0.001
Fasting plasma insulin (mU/l)13.0 (7.0–23.6)11.9 (6.7–21.2)0.22
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.5 (1.0)5.3 (1.1)0.12
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.7 (1.0)3.5 (1.0)0.013
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.0 (0.2)1.1 (0.2)0.011
Triglyceride (mmol/l)1.7 (1.0–2.8)1.5 (0.9–2.5)0.057
Hemoglobin (g/dl)14.9 (1.4)15.0 (1.4)0.58
White blood cell count (1,000 cells/mm3)7.2 (1.8)6.9 (1.9)0.24
ESR (upper quartile)40%25%0.008
Albuminuria16.2%6.6%0.003
Biothesiometer reading (volts)15.7 (9.4–26.3)12.2 (7.4–20.2)<0.001
Retinopathy49%35%0.021
Former cardiovascular disease13%4%<0.001
Erectile dysfunction9%6%0.57
Alcohol72%76%0.49
Aspirin use (current)18%19%0.83
Exercise (% sedentary/moderate/active/fit)28/33/36/321/34/41/40.58
Smoking (% current/former smokers/never)53/26/2129/36/35<0.001
  • legend

    legend Data are mean (SD), geometric mean (1-SD range), or %.

  • *

    * For univariate analyses, logistic regression was used. Reference is for

  • South Asians or

  • Afro-Caribbean relative to whites.