Table 1—

Clinical characteristics of PCA+ and PCA– type 1 diabetic patients.legend

PCA+PCA−P
n (male/female)15 (9/6)27 (20/7)NS
Age (years)41 ± 1641 ± 14NS
Duration of diabetes (years)17 ± 1019 ± 9NS
HbA1c (%)7.6 ± 0.97.9 ± 1.4NS
Helicobacter pylori +3 (20)10 (37)NS
Gastrin (ng/l)181 ± 100100 ± 490.003
Hypochlorhydria11 (73)5 (19)0.0008
Autonomic neuropathy2 (13)5 (19)NS
GEC solids3.4 ± 0.53.3 ± 0.6NS
t1/2 solids (min)73.8 ± 22.583.9 ± 69.2NS
GEC liquids2.7 ± 0.63.3 ± 0.9NS
t1/2 liquids (min)55.0 ± 22.739.2 ± 23.6NS
Gastrointestinal symptoms6 (40)11 (41)NS
Gastrointestinal symptom score3 (0–9)5 (0–15)NS
  • legend

    legend Data are means ± SD, median (range), or n (%).