Table 1—

Demographic data

No neuropathyMild neuropathyModerate neuropathySevere neuropathy
n20669557
Age (years)50.2 ± 16.256.6 ± 12.3*60.1 ± 11.3*59.7 ± 11.7*
M/F (% male)7/13 (35%)21/45 (32%)44/51 (46%)42/15 (74%)
BMI (kgm2)27.9 ± 4.131.9 ± 6.1*31.7 ± 8.6*28.9 ± 5.8
Type 1/type 2 diabetic (n)1/196/6025/7014/43
Diabetes duration (years)8.4 ± 10.49.9 ± 8.916.2 ± 10.7*16.4 ± 10.9*
NDS0.002.5 ± 1.1*11.7 ± 2.8*21.1 ± 2.9*
VPT9.8 ± 7.015.9 ± 11.1*30.9 ± 14.8*48.3 ± 6.2*
CPPT4.2 ± 0.74.7 ± 0.9*5.4 ± 1.5*6.6 ± 1.1*
First MTPJ ROM (degrees)85.9 ± 22.483.3 ± 21.367.9 ± 23.1*64.7 ± 23.1*
STJ ROM (degrees)25.6 ± 7.227.6 ± 10.423.6 ± 9.3*20.1 ± 7.6*
Force (N)83.2 ± 25.387.9 ± 24.495.2 ± 27.7*94.4 ± 27.7*
  • Data are means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. ROM, range of motion; N, Newton.

  • *

    * P < 0.001 vs. nonneuropathic group;

  • P < 0.001 vs. mild neuropathy group;

  • P < 0.001 vs. moderate neuropathy group.