Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of the study patients at baseline

Baseline
N65
Age (years)60 ± 1.3
Sex (% female)46
Race (% Caucasian)95
Duration diabetes (years)9 ± 1
Weight loss prior start insulin therapy (kg)2.0 ± 0.5
BMI (kg/m2)30.8 ± 0.7
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)144 ± 2.5
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79 ± 1.3
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)11.7 ± 0.5
HbA1c (%)8.9 ± 0.2
Estimated average glucose (mg/dL)209 ± 5.6
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.5 ± 0.2
Triglycerides (mmol/L)3.4 ± 0.8
HDL (mmol/L)1.0 ± 0.04
LDL (mmol/L)2.3 ± 0.1
Alcohol use (%)28
Smoking (%)20
Type of insulin (%)#
 Long-acting only58
 Biphasic17
 Short-acting only0
 Long-acting/short-acting (basal/bolus)25
Concomitant use of oral glucose-lowering agents (%)
 Metformin22
 Sulfonylurea derivatives9
 Metformin + sulfonylurea derivatives69
Diabetes-related complications (%)
 Nephropathy15
 Polyneuropathy10
 Retinopathy10
  • Data are mean ± SE or percent. Baseline, prior to the start of insulin therapy.

  • †Experienced weight loss within 12 months prior to the start of insulin therapy.

  • #Type of initiated insulin after baseline measurement and type of insulin used at 6 and 12 months.