Appendix—Additional characteristics of eligible clinical trials of the effectiveness of self-management education in type 2 diabetes

StudyAge (years)Baseline Control GHbPatients on insulin (%)In U.S. (yes/no)InterventionCare delivered to the control groupInterventionNo. of contactsTotal contact time (hours)Individual or groupDidactic or collaborativeTheory-based (Y,N)SamplingCompletion rate >80% (Y,N)
Agurs-Collins, 1997 (78)6210.050YDidactic + participatory sessions: diet and activityOne class + mailed informationL1828GCYVY
Bloomgarden, 1987 (79)586.6100YClasses on general diabetes issuesUCM9NRGCNEN
Brown, 1999 (49)5412.425YWeekly sessions + group supportUCM26NRGUnclearNVNR
Campbell, 1996 (38)5611.90NIndividual sessionsTwo group sessionsK10NRGCNVN
de Bont, 1981 (29)559.21.5NIndividual sesions + home visits: low-fat dietSame intervention, with low-carbohydrate dietL4NRICNUnclearY
de Weerdt, 1989 (39)449.2100NCollaborative education by health worker or patientUCK412GCYVY
d’Eramo-Melkus, 1992 (45)5610.90YDidactic course + individual sessionsUCM1214GCYVN
Estey, 1990 (80)556.10NGroup education + follow-up at home3-day course, no follow-upM41ICNUnclearY
Falkenberg, 1986 (28)667.30NSmall group sessions: problem solving1-day didactic teachingK816GCYRN
Franz, 1995 (57)578.316YIndividual visits with dieticianBasic nutrition careL31.5ICNVN
Glasgow, 1995 (50)627.967YSingle visit: diet, goal-settingUCL81ICYVY
Glasgow, 1992 (53)677.427YWeekly sessions: problem-solving and self-efficacyUCL10NRGCYVY
Hawthome, 1997 (73)53NRNRNCulturally appropriate flashcards, by lay health care workerUCM1NRIDYVY
Heller, 1988 (81)5612.70NGroup sessions on weight lossIndividual sessions with dieticianL57.5GCNEY
Kaplan, 1985 (27)547.526YCollaborative sessions on diet and activitySame intervention, discuss general diabetes issuesL1020GCYVY
Korhonen, 1987 (30)569.20NIndividual sessions on dietUCL5NRICNEY
Mazzucca, 1986 (31)589.470YHome visitsUCK2.43.6GCNEN
McCulloch, 1983 (41)3512.9100NMeal demonstrationsConventional diet teachingL3NRGCNVY
Mulrow, 1987 (42)549.50NMonthly small group meetings in diet and activityUnclearL6NRGCYEN
Perry, 1997 (54)428.7100NMonthly meetings, feedbackUCL6NRUnclearCNVY
Raz, 1988 (47)539.60NDidactic + small group sessionsUCM15NRGDNUnclearY
Ridgeway, 1999 (40)6412.316YMonthly group sessions on behavioral modificationUCK69GCYEN
Scott, 1984 (55)NR8.70NGroup + individual sessionsUCK4NRGDNVN
Trento, 1998 (82)617.30NGroup sessions on diet, activity and blood sugarUCM44GCNUnclearY
Tu, 1993 (75)65NR89YWeekly telephone calls after hospital dischargeUCM4NRICNVY
Tumin, 1992 (56)4510.880NInteractive computer program on dietUCL369ICNNRY
Uusitupa, 1993 (51)537.80NIndividual sessions on diet, activityUCL10NRICNVY
White, 1986 (48)6111.371YPsychologist-led group sessions on diet and activityDidactic teachingL1010GCYUnclearN
Wing, 1986 (32)549.950YWeight loss program with focus on blood sugarBehavioral weight control interventionM18NRGCNVY
Wing, 1988 (68)5310.50YSessions on diet, activity and blood sugarSame intervention, but no problem-solvingS22NRGCYVY
Wise, 1986 (43)568.70NComputerized knowledge assessment programUCK22ICNVY
  • C, collaborative; D, didactic; E, entire accessible population recruited into the study; G, group; I, individual; K, knowledge; L, lifestyle; M, mixed; N, no; NR, not reported; R, recruitment of the study population by random sampling of the accessible population; S, skills teaching such as self-monitoring of blood glucose and foot care; UC, usual care; V, volunteers recruited into the study; Y, yes.