Table 1—

Means (± SE) and proportions of covariates by ethnicity and sex: NHANES III

Men
Women
Non-Hispanic white*Non-Hispanic blackMexican-AmericanNon-Hispanic white*Non-Hispanic blackMexican-american
n2,5831,8812,0172,7561,8741,588
Age (years)43.7 (0.5)40.1 (0.5)35.6 (0.4)46.9 (0.6)42.9 (0.4)39.9 (0.4)
Education (years)13.0 (0.1)11.7 (0.1)9.2 (0.2)12.7(0.1)11.9 (0.1)9.2 (0.2)
Household income <$20,00023.350.753.628.753.053.4
Weight (kg)83.4 (0.4)82.4 (0.4)77.5 (0.6)68.7 (0.5)77.0 (0.6)69.3 (0.5)
BMI (kg/m2)26.7 (0.1)26.5 (0.1)26.8 (0.2)26.0 (0.2)29.0 (0.2)28.1 (0.2)
Obese (BMI >30 kg/m2)19.119.619.521.837.034.0
Waist-to-hip ratio0.96 (0.00)0.92 (0.00)0.96 (0.00)0.86 (0.00)0.87 (0.00)0.88 (0.00)
% kcal from carbohydrate48.4(0.5)46.5 (0.3)49.0 (0.4)50.7 (0.4)50.2 (0.3)51.6 (0.3)
Proportion not active8.613.121.614.225.928.5
Insulin (pmol/l)51.0 (1.1)55.0 (1.0)57.3 (1.7)47.3 (1.0)65.2 (1.8)63.2 (1.6)
Glucose (mmol/l)5.3 (0.0)5.2 (0.0)5.4 (0.0)5.1 (0.0)5.2 (0.0)5.3 (0.0)
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.3 (0.0)5.1 (0.0)5.1 (0.0)5.4 (0.0)5.2 (0.0)5.1 (0.0)
Total cholesterol/HDL ratio4.6 (0.0)3.9 (0.0)4.4 (0.0)3.8 (0.1)3.6 (0.0)3.9 (0.0)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)121.0 (0.5)124.5 (0.5)118.6 (0.5)116.1 (0.5)120.1 (0.5)114.3 (0.3)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76.0 (0.4)78.0 (0.5)74.9 (0.6)70.9 (0.3)73.6 (0.4)70.1 (0.35)
Diabetes (glucose >126 mg/dl)2.82.73.22.13.94.1
Hypertension (140/90 mmHg or on medication)21.127.313.821.430.613.8
Family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives21.023.025.922.231.734.2
  • *

    * Referent;

  • P < 0.01 vs. non-Hispanic white;

  • P < 0.01, non-Hispanic black vs. Mexican-American.