Table 1—

Baseline patient characteristics

CharacteristicCDDNDPU
n21271915
M/F13/819/810/910/5
Age (years)30–6134–6540–6540–65
BMI (kg/m2)25.0 ± 3.125.3 ± 3.427.0 ± 4.927.5 ± 4.1
Type 1/type 2 diabetes8/199/103/12
Diabetes duration (years)15.1 ± 9.319.4 ± 9.316.9 ± 8.6
HbA1c (%)7.5 ± 1.57.8 ± 1.87.3 ± 2.4
VPT toe (V)5.3 ± 2.114.7 ± 5.731.5 ± 7.6*39.9 ± 13.3*
NDS03.8 (0–5)6.95 (6–8)*7.9 (7–9)*
Retinopathy (a/b/p)24/0/39/5/55/3/7
Nephropathy (a/m/M)26/1/016/2/115/0/0
  • Data are means ± SD, range, or median (range).

  • *

    * P < 0.05 vs. D

  • P < 0.05 vs. DN. a/b/p, absent/background/proliferative; a/m/M, absent/microalbuminuria/macroalbuminuria.