Table 2—

The effects of high-wheat bran diets on body weight, blood pressure, and serum measurements in 23 diabetic subjects

Control phase
Test phase
End treatment difference
P
Week 0Weeks 8–12Week 0Weeks 8–12Absolute(%)
Body weight (kg)74 ± 374 ± 374 ± 374 ± 30.1(0.0)0.915
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic137 ± 5131 ± 3131 ± 3129 ± 3−2(−1.5)0.388
 Diastolic81 ± 276 ± 177 ± 175 ± 1−1(−1.0)0.505
Calculated CHD Risk
 CHD risk (10 years %)11.8 ± 1.011.5 ± 0.911.2 ± 1.111.3 ± 1.0−0.3(−4.1)0.288
Measures of glycemic control
 Fasting blood glucose (mmol/l)7.4 ± 0.47.9 ± 0.47.3 ± 0.37.5 ± 0.3−0.4(−3.7)0.154
 HbA1c (%)7.3 ± 0.37.4 ± 0.37.0 ± 0.27.2 ± 0.2−0.2(−2.2)0.263
Lipids and apolipoproteins
 Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.97 ± 0.174.87 ± 0.154.84 ± 0.214.97 ± 0.170.1(2.2)0.169
 Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.59 ± 0.181.53 ± 0.181.51 ± 0.191.63 ± 0.200.1(9.3)0.098
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.26 ± 0.051.17 ± 0.031.23 ± 0.051.23 ± 0.050.05(4.9)0.280
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.99 ± 0.142.99 ± 0.142.93 ± 0.183.00 ± 0.150.01(0.6)0.798
 Apolipoprotein A-I (mmol/l)1.57 ± 0.051.51 ± 0.041.53 ± 0.051.55 ± 0.050.04(2.2)0.064
 Apolipoprotein B (mmol/l)1.03 ± 0.041.03 ± 0.041.01 ± 0.051.04 ± 0.040.01(0.9)0.595
 Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol4.04 ± 0.164.19 ± 0.134.02 ± 0.184.16 ± 0.17−0(−0.2)0.942
 LDL/HDL cholesterol2.45 ± 0.142.59 ± 0.142.44 ± 0.162.53 ± 0.15−0.1(−1.4)0.698
 Apolipoprotein B/A-I0.67 ± 0.030.69 ± 0.030.67 ± 0.030.69 ± 0.030.00(−0.9)0.671
Oxidized LDL cholesterol
 LDL conjugated dienes44 ± 448 ± 34(12.1)0.034
 LDL conjugated dienes/LDL15.8 ± 1.815.9 ± 1.50.1(6.1)0.300
Clotting factors
 Urokinase (ng/ml)1.16 ± 0.051.11 ± 0.051.13 ± 0.051.13 ± 0.050.02(3.6)0.396
 PAI-1 (ng/ml)30.2 ± 3.329.5 ± 3.230.8 ± 3.032.8 ± 3.53.3(26.1)0.120
 tPA (ng/ml)5.4 ± 0.45.3 ± 0.55.3 ± 0.45.5 ± 0.50.2(9.7)0.201
 PAI/tPA6.1 ± 0.76.5 ± 0.86.4 ± 0.66.4 ± 0.72.8(30.7)0.143
Nonlipid CHD risk factors
 C-reactive protein (mg/l)*4.37 ± 1.914.8 ± 2.014.61 ± 1.933.79 ± 1.56−3.8(−7.9)0.398
 Homocysteine (μmol/l)8.5 ± 0.98.7 ± 0.78.8 ± 0.88.9 ± 0.70.22(5.8)0.282
 Serum uric acid (μmol/l)294 ± 11289 ± 12302 ± 11302 ± 1313(5.9)0.142
Minerals
 Ferritin (μg/l)*123 ± 21120 ± 24119 ± 18106 ± 21−14(−2.2)0.732
 TIBC (μmol/l)46 ± 248 ± 245 ± 249 ± 21(2.5)0.221
 Iron (μmol/l)17 ± 115 ± 117 ± 117 ± 12(13.1)0.189
 Calcium (mmol/l)2.34 ± 0.042.33 ± 0.032.35 ± 0.032.37 ± 0.060.04(2.1)0.415
 Magnesium (mmol/l)0.82 ± 0.020.84 ± 0.020.85 ± 0.020.85 ± 0.030.01(1.6)0.628
 Potassium (mmol/l)4.15 ± 0.084.15 ± 0.084.09 ± 0.124.19 ± 0.130.03(1.0)0.724
 Sodium (mmol/l)137 ± 1137 ± 3139 ± 2141 ± 34(4.1)0.214
  • Data are means ± SEM. P represents the significance of the percentage difference between treatments [(test-control/control) × 100] by Student’s t test (two-tailed). TIBC, total iron binding capacity; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; tPA. tissue plasminogen activator.

  • *

    * n = 21; 2 subjects (one on test and one on control) were eliminated as outliers (treatment changes greater than 2 SD);

  • CHD risk calculated using the Framingham equation (27).