Table 1—

Maternal and neonatal characteristics by ethnic group and GDM status

Normal EuropeansNormal South AsiansNormal PolynesiansEthnic DifferencePolynesians and South Asians
GDM Difference
Normal*GDM*
N2611556624
Maternal
 Age (years)27 ± 525 ± 526 ± 50.49726 ± 531 ± 5<0.001
 BMI (kg/m2)25.3 ± 4.920.9 ± 3.329.2 ± 6.3<0.00127.8 ± 6.633.8 ± 7.0<0.001
 Weight at delivery (kg)77 ± 1362 ± 1188 ± 17<0.00183.2 ± 19.194.6 ± 18.80.014
 Fasting glucose (mmol/l)4.4 ± 0.44.5 ± 0.44.5 ± 0.30.6254.5 ± 0.35.4 ± 1.5<0.001
 36/40-week maternal glucose (mmol/l)5.2 ± 0.54.7 ± 0.65.1 ± 0.50.0545.0 ± 0.65.9 ± 0.9<0.001
 Nonesterified fatty acids (mmol/l)0.37 ± 0.140.42 ± 0.140.37 ± 0.160.6980.38 ± 0.160.43 ± 0.180.261
 Triglycerides (mmol/l)2.42.22.50.5922.52.80.109
 Insulin† (mU/l)17.816.823.70.00722.439.1<0.001
 Insulin: C-peptide†45.647.459.90.00957.695.7<0.001
 Maternal leptin† (ng/ml)32.737.236.80.73236.945.00.234
 Maternal IGF† (ng/ml)145.6118.1149.60.258143.8173.40.072
Neonatal
 Birthweight (g)3,430 ± 6302,820 ± 3803,590 ± 500<0.0013,460 ± 5603,730 ± 5500.046
 Sum of callipers (mm)187 ± 37171 ± 9193 ± 370.147190 ± 36211 ± 340.012
 Crown rump (mm)332 ± 17315 ± 10338 ± 14<0.001334 ± 16338 ± 140.237
 Cord insulin (mU/l)12.411.213.20.55812.920.0<0.001
 Insulin: C-peptide45.243.453.60.04251.866.40.004
 Nonesterified fatty acids (mmol/l)0.21 ± 0.090.24 ± 0.070.19 ± 0.070.1390.20 ± 0.070.23 ± 0.170.192
 Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.410.500.430.3260.440.480.349
 Cord leptin (ng/ml)8.79.514.90.02613.822.30.022
 Cord IGF (ng/ml)42.834.033.50.27133.640.30.231
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *

    * Normal subjects include 55 Polynesians and 11 South Asians; Europeans were excluded as no GDM. Subjects with GDM include 20 Polynesians and 4 South Asians. Triglyceride, insulin, insulin:C-peptide ratio, maternal leptin, and maternal IGF-1 are geometric means and hence do not show SD.