Table 1—

Characteristics of the study population stratified by ethnicity and birthplace

U.S.-born NHWs (n = 178)U.S.-born MAs (n = 554)Mexico-born MAs (n = 95)
Unadjusted
 Age (years)55.053.251.6
 Male [% (n)]47.8 (85)39.4 (218)39.0 (37)
 Decreased before 1 January 1999 [% (n)]20.8 (37)24.4 (135)16.8 (16)
 Cardiovascular mortality [% (n)]12.9 (23)15.2 (84)8.4 (8)
Adjusted for age and sex
 Diabetic medication
  Using any medication (%)22.1 (16.6–28.9)33.7 (29.9–37.8)27.3 (19.2–37.3)
  Insulin use (%)10.5 (6.7–16.0)10.6 (8.3–13.5)3.1 (1.0–9.2)
 Hypertension (%)39.1 (32.0–46.8)39.9 (35.8–44.3)30.4 (21.6–40.9)
 Current smoker (%)22.6 (16.9–29.5)28.1 (24.4–32.2)22.3 (15.0–31.9)
 Poor health (%)34.2 (27.2–42.0)36.1 (32.0–40.5)24.5 (16.6–34.6)
  Heart attack (%)7.2 (4.1–12.5)7.2 (5.0–10.2)2.4 (0.6–9.5)
  Stroke (%)4.7 (2.4–9.2)3.7 (2.3–5.8)3.6 (1.2–10.8)
  Rose angina (%)5.6 (3.0–10.1)9.6 (7.4–12.4)7.6 (3.7–15.2)
  Cancer (%)13.4 (8.5–20.5)2.8 (1.7–4.8)3.3 (1.0–10.1)
  Gallbladder disease (%)12.4 (7.9–19.0)22.6 (18.3–27.7)14.8 (8.5–24.9)
 CVD history (%)15.3 (10.7–21.5)17.1 (14.9–20.7)13.5 (7.8–22.4)
Duncan SEI (scale: 0 to 100)57.9 (54.8–60.9)39.0 (37.2–40.7)34.4 (30.1–38.6)
BMI (kg/m2)30.4 (29.5–31.3)31.6 (31.1–32.1)30.7 (29.5–31.9)
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)145 (136–154)163 (158–169)156 (144–168)
2-h glucose (mg/dl)260 (245–275)300 (292–308)291 (271–312)
Duration of diabetes (years)2.46 (1.51–3.40)3.62 (3.09–4.15)2.73 (1.45–4.00)
Systolic BP (mmHg)127 (124–129)130 (128–131)129 (126–132)
Diastolic BP (mmHg)74.3 (72.8–75.7)75.0 (74.2–75.8)75.4 (73.4–77.4)
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)220 (212–228)217 (213–222)223 (213–234)
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)46.3 (44.2–48.4)43.1 (41.9–44.3)43.9 (41.0–46.7)
Triglycerides (mg/dl)237 (208–266)230 (214–247)211 (171–250)
  • Data are means or proportions (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated. Poor health was defined as having had CVD, cancer, or gall bladder disease; a history of CVD was defined as having had a heart attack, stroke, or Rose angina; Variables for which >1% of the population was missing information follow (number missing): history of cancer (9), history of a heart attack (12), Duncan SEI (18), fasting glucose (9), 2-h glucose (79), total cholesterol (12), HDL cholesterol (23), and triglycerides (12).